MeetMe recension

Skriv en recension Visar 1 – 16 Recenserades: 18 augusti 2019 Anna. Sverige. 2 recensioner 9,2 Fantastiskt • Resa på fritiden • Grupp • Svit Deluxe • Vistelsen var 3 nätter • Inlämnad på mobil Badrummet luktade väldigt unket och instängt. ... Definition of Recension in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of Recension. What does Recension mean? Information and translations of Recension in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. scam!!!!! scam!!!!! avoid at all costs, they will steal your hard earned money and automatically renew a subscription that you are unaware of, and won't even tell you its been renewed untill they email you for the payment, they then get a german debt collecting company involved to threaten you!! 'Remember Me' tells a sweet enough love story, and tries to invest it with profound meaning by linking it to a coincidence. It doesn't work that way. People meet, maybe they fall in love, maybe they don't, maybe they're happy, maybe they're sad. That's life. If, let us say, a refrigerator falls out of a window and squishes one of them, that's life, too, but it's not a story many people want to ... MeetMe23, Prag: Se 170 omdömen, 177 bilder och bra erbjudanden på MeetMe23, rankat #56 av 1 187 Temaboenden i Prag och med betyget 4,5 av 5 på Tripadvisor. MiuMeet ⭐ recension. Upptäck huvudfunktionerna och se var MiuMeet hamnar i dating apprankningen. International dating sites look out for daters who want to go beyond their own borders and seek relationships in different countries.Movies and TV shows tend to make the girl-next-door or boy-next-door scenario seem like the ideal way to find love, but what if your soul mate happens to live across the world? If you’re only […]

France is living to it's meme reputation and giving up on containing Covid-19, good job Macron !

2020.03.06 15:09 Kaining France is living to it's meme reputation and giving up on containing Covid-19, good job Macron !

Reading the rule, my country should be banned from this sub and directly go to CoronavirusMemes . It's a bit unerving. This is a serious post though.
Anyway i hope i'm just having bad faith in France but what they says and do isn't very reassuring. Especially when you read thread in this sub of people living in China (https://www.reddit.com/China_Flu/comments/febv3t/what_its_like_in_china_0306/). Shout out to u/Gtown_Gaming for making me realise that there a 80% chance that my country is fucked. Why 80% ? It's pretty obvious when reading this thread.
source: https://www.sciencesetavenir.fsante/coronavirus-covid-19-le-stade-3-entrainerait-des-mesures-contraignantes_142148 here's another one https://www.francebleu.finfos/societe/coronavirus-qu-est-ce-que-le-stade-3-de-l-epidemie-1583486838 and https://www.ouest-france.fsante/virus/coronavirus/direct-coronavirus-ecoles-fermees-dans-13-pays-285-cas-recenses-en-france-6766089
Here, starting with what Macron said, rough translation in bold:
Une épidémie est « inexorable » selon Emmanuel Macron « Il y a un moment où, nous le savons tous (...) une épidémie est de toutes façons inexorable », a déclaré Emmanuel Macron jeudi en ouvrant une réunion à l'Elysée sur le coronavirus avec une vingtaine de spécialistes, selon une vidéo diffusée par la présidence. « Nous sommes réunis (...) d'abord pour essayer de stopper l'arrivée, ensuite pour ralentir » et « il y a un moment, nous le savons tous et vous le savez infiniment mieux que moi, pour gérer une épidémie qui de toutes façons est inexorable », a dit le chef de l'Etat aux participants.
An epidemic is «inexorable» according to Emmanuel Macron
« There's a time where, we all know (...) an epidemic is in any event inexirable », said Emmanuel Macron thursday opening a meeting at the Elysée about coronavirus with about twenty specialist, according to a video published by the presidency « We are all gathered (...) first to try to stop the arival, then to slow it down » and «there's a moment, we all know it and you know it infinitly better than me, to manage an epidemic that in all event is inexorable » said the head of state to the participan
Keywords are epidemic and not pandemic and slow it down once it's there. Not containing it like china did. Once it's there it will stay is basicaly how Macron is envisaging the issue. So yes, there not even considering the possibility of trying to contain it. Great.
So, for you non french speaker, what those articles say is that France so far is using a system of 3 layered emergency measures to take for the pandemic.
It has been a week that they didn't want to go from "stade 2" to "stade 3". Now, they are saying that "stade 3 is unavoidable".
Ok, so far, so good. Now what does it means:
So from that, what we can gather is that people that won't need to be put under respiratory aid will probably not be tested and directly diagnosed with covid 19. Then they'll be sent home and asked to stay there, which they probably won't because "it's just a bad flu and i'm only having a runny nose". And their kid will continue to go to school so... (more on that further down). Then, the government will take a few measures to cancel a few festival and concert. BUT what people from the government are saying is at the moment:
Wich is very reassuring, especially the second one. Ok, it's just starting, mayve they'll cancel it if it gets very bad. Maybe. ( BTW, that woman is a real piece of work since she openly admited that she woul not hesitate to lie to protect the president and that they often call the media when they have different opinions (source: https://www.midilibre.f2019/04/01/les-quatre-casseroles-de-la-nouvelle-porte-parole-du-gouvernement-sibeth-ndiaye,8103267.php)) BUT in the same time, the Minister of "Transition Ecologique" (does it need a translation ?) is saying * "Différents scénarios sont envisagés" mais "il n'est pas question d'arrêter de faire rouler les trains"* "Different scenarios are studied" but "it's out of the question to stop have trains circulating".
Left hand is saying yes, right hand is saying no. It's confusing.
The education minister is not being as black and white about the closing of schools but when you look at what the 24/7 news channel are saying, they are basically slowly preparing the public for them staying open with explanation on how crippling it would be for the economy and hospitals to close schools because that would means that parent would have to stay at home to take care of the kids and in previous case, it meant a 30% drop in medical staff, and 15 or 20% for other profossion, going to work.
UPDATE: SCHOOLS (not university) CLOSED IN 2 DEPARTEMENT (county) https://www.rtl.factu/bien-etre/coronavirus-les-creches-maternelles-colleges-et-lycees-de-l-oise-et-du-haut-rhin-fermes-7800214567
Departement where they haven't been doing any test but on those that doctor actually 100% believe that they are positive for the last 72h https://twitter.com/tprincedelamoustatus/1235977626889736198
submitted by Kaining to China_Flu [link] [comments]


2019.10.25 19:16 Belgooly1 LAYERS OF INTERPOLATION IN TESTAMONIAN FLAVIAN

KEN OLSON has done a thesis showing the TF being more Eusebian than Josephean, [1] Eusebius was the first church father to introduce it and therefore has come under suspicion of being the interpolater.Yet it is unlikely that Eusebius created the entire text ex nihilo. It is more likely that Eusebius simply "improved" the wording of the available manu­scripts. In fact we can track the evolution of this passage!
A significant advance in understanding the evolutionary his­tory of the Testimonium came in 1971 when the Jewish scholar Shlomo Pines published An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its lmplications. [2] In a linguistic tour de force, Pines traced the translation and citation history of the Testimonium and demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that an earlier form of the piece was not as outrageously Christian as the received text.In this version it does not blame the Jews for the death of Jesus. The key phrase "at the suggestion of the principal men among us" reads instead "Pilate condemned him to be crucified".Pines' monograph drew attention to a long-known tenth­ century Arabic historical work, the "Kitāb al-Únwān" by Agapus, the Melkite bishop ofManbij (Hierapolis). In his (apparently indirect) quotation from Josephus, Agapius supplies what would appear to be the earliest form of the Testimonian.
“Similarly Josephus the Hebrew. For he says in the treatises that he has written on the governance of the Jews: "At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. His conduct was good, and [he] was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and the other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. But those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his cru­cifixion, and that he was alive; accordingly, he was perhaps the Messiah, concerning whom the prophets have recounted won­ders." This is what is said by Josephus and his companions of our Lord the Messiah, may he be glorified.”~Arabic version.
As there is a close connection between Agapius' version and Michael's, [Michael the Syrian] the resemblance between the latter and St. Jerome's text might, lead to the conclusion that the distinctive traits of Agapius' version might have been produced in the Syriac or Arabic period. However, during this period the Testimonium was being transmitted by Christian historiographers. Agapius and also, as far as we can judge, his sources accept in a very devout spirit all the legendary stories concerning the life of Jesus. To me it is inconceivable that he or they could of their own accord have added the sceptical or non-committal note represented by the word “reported”, or weakened the references to Jesus' extraordinary qualities and actions occurring in the first two sentences of the vulgate recension. They must have found the distinctive char­acteristics of Agapius' recension in the text of the Testimonium handed down to them."~
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Shlomo Pines also discovered a 12th-century Syriac version of the Testimonium in the chronicle of Michael the Syrian.Although the Chronicle of Michael the Syrian dates to nearly three centuries later than Agapius, he too reports a version of the Testimonian that is more primitive than the received text, but more "evolved" than that preserved by Agapius. Shlomo Pines renders his version as follows:
“The writer Josephus also says in his work on the institutions of the Jews: In these times there was a wise man named Jesus, if it is fitting for us to call him a man. For he was a worker of glo­ rious deeds and a teacher of truth. Many from among the Jews and the nations became his disciples. He was thought to be the Messiah [or Perhaps he was the Messiah] . But not according to the testimony of the principal [men] of [our] nation. Because of this, Pilate condemned him to the cross, and he died. For those who had loved him did not cease to love him. He appeared to them alive after three days. For the prophets of God had spoken with regard to him of such marvelous things [as these]. And the people of the Christians, named after him, has not disappeared till day”
Instead of "he was Christ", the Syriac version has the phrase "he was believed to be Christ". Drawing on these textual variations, scholars have suggested that these versions of the Testimonium more closely reflect an earlier form of the Testamonian. (This is close to Jeromes attestation).St. Jerome [c340-420] made a Latin translation of the Testimonium in On Illustrious Men, ch13 in his discussion of Josephus. It too is in one respect less developed than the received text with respect to the Messianic identity of Jesus:
“He [Josephus] wrote about the Lord in this way: "At about this time there was a wise man, Jesus, if it is proper to call him a man. He was the doer of marvelous deeds and teacher of those who receive truth willingly. He had many followers both among the Jews and the Gentiles, and he was believed to be the Christ [Messiah] . When, because of the envy of our principal men, Pilate had condemned him to the cross, those who at the first had come to love him persevered in faith. Living, he appeared to them on the third day. These and countless other marvels about him the prophecies of the prophets had foretold. And up until today the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not disappeared”.
Although Jerome lived a generation later than Eusebius, his Latin version of the Testamonian is more primitive than the received Greek text preserved in the latter's Historia Ecclesiastica [Eusibius] and in most manuscripts of Josephus. It will be noted that Jerome retains the dubitative "he was believed to be the Christ," making it clear that the Greek text Jerome owned did not ascribe the belief in Jesus' messiahship to Josephus himself. [As a matter of interest the Greek translation of De Viris Illustrious has eliminated all differ­ences and reads exactly the same as the received text of Eusibius!]—————————————————- Slavonic
Before the thirteenth century, in Constantinople or its environs, a mutant form of the Testi­monium found its way into the Greek text of the Wars.Translated into Old Russian, producing the so-called ‘Slavonic Josephus.' The material corresponding to the beginning of the Testimonium was inserted between the third and fourth paragraphs of the ninth chapter of Book 2 of the Wars.
“At that time there appeared a certain man, if it is meet to call him a man. His nature and form was human, but the appear­ ance of him more than (that) of a human (being): yet his works (were) divine. He wrought miracles wonderful and strong. Wherefore it is impossible for me to call him a human (being, simply). But on the other hand, if I look at (his) characteristic (human) nature, I will not call him an angel.And all, whatsoever he wrought through an invisible power, he wrought by a word and command. Some said of him, "our first lawgiver is risen from the dead, and hath evidenced this by many cures and prodigies." But the others thought he was (a man) sent from God. Now in many things he opposed the Law and kept not the Sabbath according to the custom of (our) forefathers. Yet again, he did nothing shameful nor underhand.And many of the multitude followed after him and hear­ kened to his teaching. And many souls were roused, thinking that thereby the Jewish tribes could free themselves from Roman hands. But it was his custom rather to abide without the city on the Mount of Olives. There also he granted cures to the people. And there gathered to him of helpers 150, but of the crowd a multitude.But when they saw his power, that he accomplished by a word whatsoever he would, and when they had made known to him their will, that he should enter the city and cut down the Roman tropo s and Pilate, and rule over them, he heeded it not. And when thereafter news of it was brought to the Jewish leaders, they assembled together with the high priest and said, "We are powerless and (too) weak to resist the Romans. Since howev­ er the bow is bent, we will go and communicate to .Pilate what we have heard, and we shall be free from trouble, in order that he may not hear (it) from others and we be robbed of(our) goods and ourselves slaughtered and (our) children dispersed."And they went and reported (it) to Pilate. And he sent and had many ofthe multitude slain. And he had that wonder-worker brought up, and after he had held an inquiry concerning him, he pronounced (this) judgment: "He is (a benefactor, but not) a male­ factor (nor) a rebel (nor) covetous of king(ship)." And he let him go, for he had healed his dying wife. And after he had gone to his wonted place, he did his wonted works. And when more people again gathered round him, he glorified himself by his action(s) more than all.The scribes (therefore) being stung with envy gave Pilate thirty talents to kill him. And he took (it) and gave them liberty to car out their will (themselves). And they took him and cru­cified him contrary to the law of (their) fathers.”
Hugh J. Schonfield, an expert on the ancient "Jewish Christians," has shown quite convincingly that Jewish Christian writings underlie the expansion of the text of Slavonic Josephus.
ATTEMPT TO RECONSTRUCT THE ORIGINAL
Stephen C. Carlson ( see link at end of post) [3] has followed up a curious footnote in Meiers book “A Marginal Jew” Vol 1 page 101, footnote 12, where it has been studied ( by Franz Dornsieff, “Lukas der Schriftsteller. Mit einem Anhang: Josephus und Tacitus,” ZNW 35 (1936): 148-55.), that Tacitus has used Josephus as one of his sources. Because of this he may have preserved the original TF, ( before Eusibius got his dirty hands on it)! Here is what the reconstruction may have looked like:
TESTIMONIAN FLAVIAN RECONSTRUCTION FROM TACITUS
“Now there was about this time a man, an innovator and deceiver of the people. Through his sorcery and innovations he drew over to him many Galileans and by them he was seen to be a King: For fear of the influence of a great many people, he suffered the extreme penalty at the hands of governor (ἡγεμών), Pilate who condemned him to be crucified. Many of his followers, the Galileans were slain and thus checked for the moment. The movement again broke out with wild fury and mischievous superstition not only in Judæa, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular.”
As can be seen from Annals15:44, the entirety of Tacitus’s information about Jesus is paralleled in Josephus, AJ 18, if not in the Testimonium, then nearby in the book. Even more significant, Tacitus’ use of Josephus explains the erroneous title for Pontius Pilate as a governor (ήγεμών). The Greek term Josephus uses for Pilate elsewhere (ἡγεμών), [An example of Josephus using “ἡγεμὼν” is in Ant18.3.1 as a title for Pilate], was non-specific, and Tacitus had to guess (and guess incorrectly) what Pilate’s Latin title would have been. (This would argue against Tacitus having a Roman source and would argue in favor of Josephus being his source).[As a side note:His title is given as procurator in Tacitus. Pontius Pilate's title was traditionally thought to have been "procurator of Judea" since the Roman historian Tacitus (writing in the second century AD) refers to him as such. However, the Pilate stone (a fragmentary Latin inscription that records the name of 'Pontius Pilate comes from the Tiberium') refers to him as "prefect of Judea". Pilate would have been a prefect at the time of Jesus. “Prefects" were governors in charge of parts of larger provinces. Pilate was removed from office because of his treatment of the Samaritan ( Ant 18.4.1) After this, as it turns out, it was not until the rule of the emperor Claudius (who governed from 41 to 54 AD) that the title of the Roman governors changed from "prefect" (ἔπαρχος) to "procurator". (επίτροπος)]
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I’ve built on top of Carlson’s reconstruction with the following reasons:• On one of the four points where the TF meets the Annals, it uses the phrase “mischievous superstition”. I thought that was rather Tacitean and replaced it with ‘innovator’ and ‘deceiver’ which is more Josephean.• I replaced the line, “He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles.” With “ He drew over to him many Galileans” as the original line sounds Paulinist. Also the early followers of Jesus were known as Galileans, as attested by Epitetus, Diss.4.7.6. Circa110-115AD (Cf Luke13.1-2; Mark14:70).Diss. 4.7.6: “Well then, if madness can cause people to adopt such as attitude towards these things [not being scared at the swords of tyrants] and habit too, as in the case of the Galileans, can’t reason and demonstration teach people that God ha made all that is in the universe, and the universe itself as a whole, to be free…”This passage shows that Christians were known to be persecuted by the Emperor Nero, and Epictetus had been within close proximity to the Emperor’s household.• As with many messianic figure followers reported in Josephus works, they usually declared the would be leader a King, this is reflected in the reconstruction.•Agapius Arabic version does not blame the Jews for the death of Jesus. The key phrase "at the suggestion of the principal men among us" reads instead "Pilate condemned him to be crucified". This is reflected in the reconstruction.• The Syriac version has the phrase “he was believed to be Christ” instead of "he was the Christ"Origen attested that Josephus did not like the term “Christ” so I left that out (Contra Celsus I.47).• The TF could not have been neutral because of what was written before and after it. I stated the Galileans were slain because of the opening line of this Ant 18.3.4“About the same time also another sad calamity put the Jews into disorder: ~Ant18.3.4 and also see what was written before it:- “Who laid upon them much greater blows than Pilate had commanded them; and equally punished those that were tumultuous, and those that were not. Nor did they spare them in the least.“~ Ant18.3.2• The interpolation of the TF into Slavonic Josephus Wars also does not name Jesus in the passage but refers to him as “there appeared a certain man”~Slavonic Wars2.9.3/4. This could have been a more primitive interpolation than Eusibius’ interpolation. The most telling part about the Slavonic version is that it said everything about Jesus but his name, that very fact could have been preserved along a separate transmission line that Jesus was not named in the original. I have gone for this in the reconstruction above. This and the fact of the TF being a negative original could explain why Origen never cited this passage in all his works.Whealy [4] (in page13 of link) makes a very astute observation that "Yet before Origen no Christian writer apparently found it worthwhile to cite Josephus as a relevant authority on anything in the New Testament; not only did they not cite Josephus on Jesus, they did not cite Josephus on James the brother of Jesus, John the Baptist, the several parallels shared by Luke-Acts and Josephus works, and perhaps most surprisingly, they did not name Josephus an authority on King Herod, a figure that dominates three and a half books of Antiquities".————————————————— Here is the original TF:Ant18.64-65 ( Ant18.3.3 AKA TF) “Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”
A DIFFERENT JAMES PASSAGEOur reconstruction does not bode well for the current James passage, Ant 20.200, as there is no mention of Jesus or an abhorant word to the Jew Josephus - the word 'Christ'. But this is not a problem as Origen in his attestation of the James passage was on about a different James.Was James the brother of Jesus originally in Josephus?We all suspect interpolations, what is more interesting is what was cut out from Josephus. All James references (opposition to Paul gentile movement), derogatory Jesus references etc.Lets examine this Christian tradition blaming the fall of Jerusalem to the death of James.[TRACKING THE SOURCES].Although nowhere to be found in the extant Josephus, it is quoted by Eusebius – who implies it is from Wars – in the following manner:“And these things happened to the Jews to avenge James the Just, who was the brother of Jesus, the so-called Christ, for the Jews put him to death, notwithstanding his preeminent Righteousness.”(EH2.23.20)On close analysis, it is clear Eusebius or the Josephus he saw means James.Origen reproduces something of the same idea, though he claims Josephus referred to it in the Antiquities. Since Josephus’ Antiquities does not encompass a discussion of the fall of the Temple per se as Wars does, it is more likely that Eusebius is more correct in this matter. Origen gives the tradition as follows:“So great a reputation among the people for Righteousness did this James enjoy, that Flavius Josephus, who wrote the Antiquities of the Jews in Twenty Books, when wishing to show the cause what the people suffered so great misfortunes that even the Temple was razed to the ground, said that these things happened to them in accordance with the Wrath of God in consequence of the things which they had dared to do against James the brother of Jesus who is called the Christ.”(Contra Cel 1.47)Then he adds:“The wonderful thing is, that though he did not accept Jesus as Christ, he yet gave testimony that the Righteousness of James was so great; and he says that the people thought that they had suffered these things because of [what had been done to] James.” ( Commentary on Matthew 10.17)This is extremely interesting testimony and hardly something either Origen or Eusebius would or could have dreamed up entirely by themselves, because it contradicts authoritative Church doctrine, which rather ascribed the fall of Jerusalem, as Origen “himself contends, to Jesus’ death, not James’. (Contra Cel 2.13)Jerome too gives us a version of this tradition about James:“This same Josephus records the tradition that this James was of such great Holiness and repute among the people that the downfall of Jerusalem was believed to be on account of his death.”(Vir ill 2)[Lives of illustrious men].Jerome is a careful scholar; one must assume that he saw something of what he says. Perhaps the nonsense Paulina and Fulvia episodes that follow the suspicious-sounding account of the crucifixion of Christ in Book Eighteen replaced some more extensive commentary of the kind Jerome says he saw in Book Eighteen, which included the material about Jerusalem falling ‘because of the death of James the Apostle’, not Jesus.Epiphanius too calls James a nazorite (Panarian 29.5.7). From other sources like the Pseudoclementine Homilies and Recognitions, we shall be able to show how James is leader of the Jerusalem Church does send out Apostles and others on overseas missions. Paul confirms this when he discusses the ‘some from James’ that are sent down to check into affairs in Antioch in Galatians 2:12.The only other early author (apart from the disputed Josephus) to mention James before the close of the second century C.E. is Hegesippus (cf. Fragments from the Acts of the Church; Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord, from Book 5), who as early as c. 165 - 175AD tells his reader in great detail that James (as brother of the Lord) was hurled from the top of the Temple and then because he survived this attempt on his life he was then summarily stoned to death. Hegesippus also tells us that this happened immediately before the destruction of the Temple by Vespasian and as such it would point to a date of c. 68 - 70ADThese argue strongly for the authenticity of Hegesippus’ detailed description of James and the existence of a much longer exegetical work on the death of James in the manner of the pesharim at Qumran, upon which this was based.The first is the allusion to a key scriptural passage, Isaiah 3:10–11. Not only is this Zaddik passage exactly parallel to ones like those in the Habakkuk and Psalm 37 Peshers applied to the death of the Righteous Teacher at Qumran, but its vocabulary was actually absorbed into the former of these. The second feature is the application to James of this important conceptuality of the ‘Zaddik’ or ‘Righteous One’.————————————————————-So to sum up Origen in two works, Contra Celsus and his Commentary on Matthew, claims to have found in his copy of the Antiquities by Josephus a passage attributing the fall of Jerusalem to the death of James, not Jesus. Eusebius claims something similar but he claims to have seen it in WARS.In normative Christian usage, Jesus is considered to have predicted both the downfall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple, and Origens outrage at having come upon these passages in the copy of Josephus available to him – presumably in the library at Caesarea on the Palestine coast, where Eusebius too had later been Bishop – and Eusebius’ own concern over this discrepancy, might be not a little connected to its disappearance in all extant copies about James in Josephus’ works.----------------------------------------------------SO HOW DID IT HAPPEN WE HAVE THE CURRENT JAMES PASSAGE?Allen [5] in the paper linked below (chapter 4 , p 291-328) goes one step further than Carrier in claiming that the James passage in “Antiquities of the Jews” (AJ) was not an inter linear scribal error but an actual Christian interpolation.————————————————————ORIGEN AND THE ”JAMES THE JUSTICE” PASSAGE IN Antiquities by Josephus (Ant20.9.1)You can see from the following two quotes by Origen that Josephus never liked to use the term ‘Christ’.CONTRA CELSIUM Book1 ch. 47 ( Origen)“Now this writer [i.e. Josephus], although not believing in Jesus as the Christ....”COMMENTARY ON MATTHEW X 17 (Origen)“And the wonderful thing is, that, though he did not accept Jesus as Christ, he yet gave testimony that the righteousness of James was so great; and he says that the people thought that they had suffered these things because of James.”————————————————————JOSEPHUS DID NOT LIKE THE TERM ‘CHRIST’.According to Origen (cf. COM, X.17 / 5268 - 5269; Cels, I, 47),we are able to confirm that Josephus did not accept Jesus as the “Christ”.You can clearly see Josephus did not like to use the term ‘Christ’ in relation to Jesus.It is interesting that Josephus would have mentioned the word “Christ” considering how quickly he denigrates any other supposed messianic upstarts in all of his other writings.Why Josephus says “James the brother of Jesus who is called Christ” and not say “James the son of Joseph” which is the proper Jewish form of address. Origen quotes the James Passage practically verbatim - even inappropriately referring to a Jewish male as “the brother” of another individual;I would like people to note what Allen missed->[At the start of 20.9.1 there is a high priest Joseph mentioned who was deprived of his position by Agrippa, perhaps James is the son of Joseph.]Instead of"brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James"It originally should have read"James son of Joseph".This makes much more sense that Carriers explanation and it fits as there is a high priest named Joseph deposed at the start of the passage.The assurances of many Christian scholars, it is difficult to see how the James Passage (JP) [A]* can in any way appear as an innocent text. (See relevant passages below in footnotes.)For the James passage to be authentic then the earlier passage the Testimonium Flavian (TF) [B]* would have to be authentic too. But we know this TF passage was not in Origen’s copy of “Antiquities of the Jews”(AJ). To take any other stance would seriously question why Josephus would have expected his reader to know who Jesus (of Nazareth) was in the James Passage.Origen relies SOLELY on what is surely the James Passage in his attempts to justify that it was the death of Jesus, and not James, that caused the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem makes it far more likely to presume that the TF DID NOT EXIST in Origen’s version of the AJ.————————————————————ORIGEN AS SUSPECTED INTERPOLATORIf one simply reviews the actual statements made by Origen, it should be regarded as pertinent that he uses almost exactly the same wording as is contained in the current form of the JP (i.e. “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James”) to describe James, viz.:1. COM, X, 17 / 5268: “James the brother of Jesus who is called Christ”;2. Cels, I, 47: “James the Just, who was a brother of Jesus called Christ”; and3. Cels, II, 13: “James the Just, the brother of Jesus who was called Christ”.Origen mentions Josephus' reference to James on four occasions: twice in his COM, X, 17 / 5268 – 5269, once in Cels. I, 47 and again in his Cels. II, 13Suspected interpolation (i.e. “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ”), if foul play is speculated it is almost certain that Origen (rightly or wrongly), will be amongst the more likely suspects.The interpolator merely used this convenient point in line 200 of Josephus’ account of Ananus’ atrocities to ensure the inclusion of the following few mission-critical words: “Jesus who was called Christ”.The suspected Christian interpolator merely used the cursory reference to the stoned man and some compatriots as a useful device.————————————————————CALLED CHRIST HAS GOSPEL TRADITION:The participial phrase “(who is/who was) called Christ” (c.f. Antiquities, 20.9.1.200) does not actually include the verb “to be”. This is simply added into the English translation.This is literally what it says in Greek:“…and having brought before them (the council) the brother of Jesus, who being called Christ, James - his name…”The participial phrase indeed matches the gospels. There is NO implication of PAST TENSE in «Ἰησοῦ τοῦ λεγομένου Χριστοῦ». And there’s no way to rephrase it to imply a present tense more explicitly.Since, in the context of the current form of the text, Jesus is assumed to have died previously, it is totally appropriate to translate it in English as “...was called...”. The Greek phrasing should be totally non-controversial.The same expression “called Christ” is both John 4:25 and Matthew 1:16: “of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.” The phrase is found in a similar form in Matthew two more times, then in 27:17 and 27:22; and the author of the Gospel of Matthew has Pilate both times designating Jesus as that “Jesus who is called Christ”. The manner of letting a non-Christian witness identify Jesus as the one who was “called Christ” can accordingly be traced back to the Gospels. This would reasonably imply that it would not have felt unnatural for a Christian person with knowledge of the Gospel accounts to designate Jesus as the one called Christ, if he later found that Josephus ought to have mentioned Jesus.“Called Christ” are the EXACT SAME phrase in different grammatical cases (nominative for ‘subject', accusative for ‘direct object' and genitive for 'possessive’).So what we observe in the English translations is a juxtaposition of the tense forms of “to be”, where past tense (“was”) is appropriate for Josephus and Origen (narrating events after Jesus’ death); while present tense (“is”) is appropriate for the Gospels (narrating events during Jesus’ life). English translators are forced to make a choice, while the Greek authors were not bound by such rules.Ἰησοῦ τοῦ λεγομένου Χριστοῦ (genitive).(Iêsou tou legomenou Christou)Jesus who (was) called Christ(Antiquities of the Jews 20:200).Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός (nominative)(Iêsous ho legomenos Christos)Jesus, who (is) called Christ (Matt 1:16).ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός (nominative)(ho legomenos Christos)he] who ( is)called Christ (John 4:25).Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν (accusative)(Iêsoun ton legomenon Christon)Jesus who (is) called Christ (Matt 27:17).Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν (accusative)(Iêsoun ton legomenon Christon)with Jesus who (is) called Christ (Matt 27:22).———————————————————-
WHAT’S MISSING/ WHAT’S ADDED?? (From passage)As stated in line 199 this makes little sense. For example, was Josephus telling us that Ananus simply liked to have individuals executed without justifiable cause, and was merely waiting for the opportune moment when he was not under Roman authority to give vent to his sadistic temperament?Or, is something now missing from the original text, immediately before line 200, which formerly gave the correct account of why Ananus needed to get rid of the unknown man or men in question?However, in the current version, the reader is none the wiser. This is in fact quite noticeable if one has the eyes to see, because after supposedly giving his reader no clear motive for the arrests, Josephus then goes to great lengths (lines 201 – 203) to explain that the charges against the men were not justified. These three lines would only make sense if, before line 200, the reader had been told the nature of the charges and the context behind them being levelled at the men in question.It might also be consider that originally the JP (or preceding text), was somewhat longer than it now appears, and once included the genuine reasons behind Ananus’ urgent need to make use of the opportune death of Festus to dispatch his enemies. Here, the unknown Christian interpolator may well have removed one (or possibly two), sentences that originally gave the reader the correct names of the offenders (as well as the true nature of their crime). He then inserted this most convenient of phrases: “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James”.After supposedly giving his reader no clear motive for the arrests, Josephus then goes to great lengths (lines 201 – 203) to explain that the charges against the men were not justified. These three lines would only make sense if, before line 200, the reader had been told the nature of the charges and the context behind them being levelled at the men in question.————————————————————CONCLUSIONS The only other early author (apart from the disputed Josephus) to mention James before the close of the second century C.E. is Hegesippus (cf. Fragments from the Acts of the Church; Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord, from Book 5), who as early as c. 165 - 175 C.E. tells his reader in great detail that James (as brother of the Lord) was hurled from the top of the Temple and then because he survived this attempt on his life he was then summarily stoned to death. Hegesippus also tells us that this happened immediately before the destruction of the Temple by Vespasian and as such it would point to a date of c. 68 - 70 C.E.If this account is in any way accurate it means that the JP is in direct contradiction to both the date as well as the manner and circumstances of James’ death (The JP states that James was stoned along with “others” after due trial and sentencing by a high priest).The issue is further compounded by the fact that, by the fourth and fifth centuries it was more normal for the mainstream church to defer from referring to Jesus as having flesh and blood brothers. In this regard, it will be recalled that in his DVI, 2 Jerome (c. 347 – 420 C.E.) maintains that James was Jesus’ cousin and the biological son of Mary of Cleophas. Jerome stresses that James was not the son of Joseph by another wife.Lastly, if one needs the name of the chief suspect for this interpolation, Origen is certainly the most likely candidate. Although, in his Cels. II, 22, he makes it clear that he thinks that the death of Jesus was the ultimate cause for the destruction of the Temple, he repeatedly makes mention of Josephus’ reference to James in his many writings. In these contexts, he falsely records Josephus as blaming the death of James for the destruction of Jerusalem and as has been clearly shown, Origen recurrently employs the almost identical phraseology as found in the JP today.——————————————————
MY OWN CONCLUSION: Origen said himself that Josephus hated the term ‘Christ’ in relation to Jesus. I don’t believe the term existed in his copy. I believe the interpolater was of Origen school and simply lifted the phrase, “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ” from Origen’s writings.——————————————————
Footnotes[A] Passage from Antiquitates Judaicae20.9.1/ 197 - 203 (James Passage)“And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Ananus, who was also himself called Ananus. Now the report goes that this eldest Ananus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. But this younger Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; when, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king, desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a sanhedrin without his consent. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.”[B] Passage from the Antiquitates Judaicae18.3.3/ 63 – 64.( better known as the Testimonium Flavian or TF).“Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”
——————————————————— [1] https://chs.harvard.edu/CHS/article/display/5871.5-a-eusebian-reading-of-the-testimonium-flavianum-ken-olson
[2] http://khazarzar.skeptik.net/books/pines01.pdf
[3] http://hypotyposeis.org/weblog/2004/08/a-pre-eusebian-witness-to-the-testimonium.html
[4] http://khazarzar.skeptik.net/books/whealey1.pdf
[5] https://dspace.nwu.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10394/14213/Allen_NPL.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y ——————————————————— P.14 from Shlomo Pines book "An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its lmplications".
submitted by Belgooly1 to AcademicBiblical [link] [comments]


2019.07.05 03:42 homelessnessVancity Regarding Homelessness,

Regarding Homelessness,
Given another thread about the DTES and the negativity about homelessness generally I (this is a throw away account) felt the need to give a long winded reasoning into the problem and attempt to dispel some myths. I have some beliefs as to the root causes of homelessness and there is rhetoric woven into this post. I will also provide some insight into possible solutions.
Is it getting worse?
The problem with this question is it is way too broad. Is what getting worse? If we are unpacking it i would guess people would be asking are the numbers increasing? Is crime getting worse? So lets take a look.
Are numbers increasing?
Well according to page 10 of the Homelessness count cited below in terms of absolute numbers, yes. However, It is rare that anything is ever so cut and dry. Homeless people both sheltered and unsheltered increased from 1364 in 2005 to 2181 in 2018, an increase 817 people. However, Of those homeless in 2005 only 56% (approx) were sheltered whereas of 2181 homeless in 2018 (approx) 70% are sheltered. Some may view this as progress. In absolute numbers the homeless population increased by 60%
Of note, or perhaps contributing to the rise over that time is:
That said Vancouver increased in Population from 2006 (578, 671) to 2016 (631,486) by 9.1%. I used this data set as it most closely resembled the homeless count data. The Homeless population between 2008 and 2010 exploded, rising from 765 to 1294 (69.2% increase) - This coincides with the great recession (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Recession )
The Homeless count hit its near peak in 2011 following the economic shock of the Great Depression (and born out in the Canadian Unemployment rate which had its recent peak at over 8% circa 2010) before falling for several years, only peaking above the 2011 numbers recently in 2014 before falling briefly again in 2015 and then rising until now.
In terms of housing between between October 1990 and October 2005 the average rental rate in Vancouver jumped from $622 to $845. An increase of 223, for an average of $14 a year. Between October 2005 and October 2018 the average rent increased from $845 to $1394 a difference of $549 or averaged over 13 years, $42 a year... that is 3 times the average rent increase year over year from the first Data set.
The Canadian Economy has generally grown since the mid 90's but wages have not. This means while profits have soared for the few most workers have had to make due with less. "In 1961 workers’ wage share was 64.61% of the remaining economic pie, while by 2005 their wage share had fallen to just over 60%—the lowest level we’ve seen in workers’ wage share since 1961... ....Corporate profit shares dropped in the 1960s, through the late-1970s and early-1980s. After that the profit share rose steadily— dramatically so in the last several years. (In terms of yearly data, the small dips in the early-1980s and early1990s were associated with recessions.) Corporate profit shares went from 28.91% of the remaining economic pie in 1961 to 33.68% by 2005—the highest level we’ve seen in profit share since 1961... ...corporations’ profit share has been persistently increasing while workers’ wage share has been persistently decreasing since the late-1970s." (Moreover, young men entering the work force could expect to make less than those preceded them. - Rising Profit Shares, Falling Wage Shares) ..."other changes in Canadian wages occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. One of these was the increasing dispersion of male wages, particularly across age groups, as the wages of young men fell relative to those of older men" (Morissette 1998; Picot 1998). (https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11f0019m/2013347/part-partie1-eng.htm)

https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/vancouver-homeless-count-2018-final-report.pdf (Vancouver Homelessness count 2018)
https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92-591/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=5915022&Geo2=PR&Code2=59&Data=Count&SearchText=Vancouver&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&GeoLevel=PR&GeoCode=5915022 (Vancouver stats 2006)
https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&Data=Count&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&TABID=1&B1=All&Code1=5915022&SearchText=vancouver (Vancouver stats 2016)
https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/unemployment-rate (Canadian Unemployment Rate)
https://www03.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/hmip-pimh/en/TableMapChart/TableTableId=2.1.31.3&GeographyId=2410&GeographyTypeId=3&DisplayAs=Table&GeograghyName=Vancouver (Historical Rental Market Statistics
https://www03.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/hmip-pimh/en/TableMapChart/Table?TableId=2.1.31.3&GeographyId=2410&GeographyTypeId=3&DisplayAs=Table&GeograghyName=Vancouver (Historical rental Market Stats in Vancouver)
https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11f0019m/2013347/longdesc-ct001-eng.htm (real wages in Canada) https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National_Office_Pubs/2007/Rising_Profit_Shares_Falling_Wage_Shares.pdf

Is it getting worse (Is growing homelessness affecting me)?
Perhaps the only way to measure this question is to consider the crime rate as crime certainly affects the public. Even so, I'm not going to post crime statistics or interpret them. Crime Statistics are ripe for spin and can easily be distorted. I will link to an article from the Georgia Straight that looks at crime data in interesting ways and people can make their own judgements. I will say that it is not clear that crime has increased in a major way due to homelessness. https://www.straight.com/news/798701/10-years-police-data-reveals-how-gentrification-has-affected-crime-downtown-eastside

What is the connection to drug use? People do not wake up and choose to be addicted to a drug. Very few people want to be beholden to a substance, very few people want to steal, very few people want to wake up in a gutter. A common refrain regarding homelessness is that people have made "bad choices". People are by and large avoid harming themselves so why would people choose to be homeless and addicted? Realistically people are driven to drugs, it is not a choice of free will but a decision made when drugs provide a more appealing alternative than the current situation. People, by and large, want to be happy, when faced with the despair of homelessness there are realistically few opportunities for extended consistent happiness. In some cases drugs might provide the only realistic form of happiness for people on the streets looking for happiness. I'm not explaining this as well as i'd like to so I'll hand it over to Dr. Gabor Mate, who ran a private family practice in East Vancouver for over twenty years, He can much better explain the science of addiction https://youtu.be/--ZvvjfSZoY?t=176

So, what is the cause?
I would argue strongly that a major (not the only) cause of homelessness is poverty. As I explained above, costs have risen for decades while wages especially for young men have fallen. There is an obvious and strong correlation between economic depression and homelessness and given the long and consistent downturn in economic opportunities coupled with the increase in cost of living in Canada and specifically Vancouver we have seen a corresponding increase in homelessness. Of course the issue is not nearly that simple. When faced with the despair of homelessness people are driven to find happiness. They are often driven to drugs. It is not a simple path nor is it the only path to drugs and addiction, but it can be a common path to drugs and addiction.

and this is often leads to cycles of homelessness and poverty. Why?
Because our laws have effectively made it so. Keep in mind that given we have always had some level of unemployment that some members of our society have been unemployed. If somebody is unemployed they will need to find a means by which they can live. In many cases that means theft. If some one is convicted of theft, it creates a major barrier to finding future employment.
This is especially unfortunate when one considers how closely stable employment is linked to re-offense. More over high employment can be linked to a reduction in property crime. -https://johnhoward.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/facts-24-crime-and-unemployment-whats-the-link-march-2009.pdf

Its not better to put people in jail anyways... According to this 2018 document it costs minimally on average $47,370, to house an inmate. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2018/dpb-pbo/YN5-152-2018-eng.pdf
Alternatively, welfare is $710 a month. - https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/b-c-government-set-to-increase-welfare-rates-and-disability-assistance-1.4214828 I understand that the current $710 amount does not meet the needs of the homeless, but in all likelihood it is cheaper to provide all citizens with shelter and services (and more humane) than it will cost to jail them.

Solution?
Break the cycle of poverty through Housing first, provide meaningful opportunities for work and financial gain. In short, society needs to provide a better alternative to homelessness and addiction.
Apologies for math, spelling and grammar errors... happy to hear different perspectives too.
submitted by homelessnessVancity to vancouver [link] [comments]


2018.12.17 00:36 n33bulz High Income Earning - FAQ/General Guidelines

Recently, I've been seeing a lot of posts and comments in PFC that generally fall into the "how do I/how did you become 'rich'" category. Whether it's asking for what degrees to get, get rich quick schemes, or simply wondering what some of the high earners do for a living, I think it be helpful to write a post that summarizes a lot of what has been repeated over and over.
Now I know that PFC is mostly geared to sound/safe financial advice for the general population, but I don't think it's taboo for people to wonder how people in the higher income brackets are doing it or how they got there.
DISCLAIMER: This is NOT a post about HOW to get rich or some foolproof way to live like a king. It's a summary of a lot of Q&A I've seen around here and some of my personal experiences and experiences from my colleagues. I invite everyone on PFC to add/correct/shoot the shit about anything I write here. Also, the advice I'm about to give must be taken into context as people striving to become high earners. This is NOT necessarily sound financial advice and there are some pretty high risks that may be associated to some of what I'm about to say. I'm also assuming this is within Canada.
Now I'm just going to get this out of the way first because I know someone is going to ask about what I do/earn:
- Both SO and I are late 20's, ealry 30's, from poor family backgrounds.
- Both have undergraduate and graduate degrees from well respected universities.
- We're both professionals and also own several businesses that we built up ourselves.
- Combined income is variable, but between 500k to 1M annual income.
- Depending on how well some of our venture goes, we also have some one time payouts in the 5 to 6 digit ranges.

Defining High Income
One thing that gets debated a lot here is what constitutes a "high income". For simplicity's sake, I'm not going to talk about taxes or cost of living, but base this definition as the top 1% of whatever city you are living in. This information can be found here for those that are curious: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/dv-vd/inc-rev/index-eng.cfm
Generally speaking, if your individual income is above 250k, you are safely in the 1%.

The Role of Education
It should come at no surprise that certain degrees are worth more than others. The general advice you'll see around here is that Engineering/Software/Computer Science are pretty good degrees for securing a high salary upon graduation. There are also other in demand degrees like quantitive mathematics, stats, medicine, dentistry and finance/accounting. Certain graduate degrees in software engineering, finance, and law can also make you an extremely attractive candidate upon graduation.
However, there are a few things to consider:
- You need to stand out. Whether it's being top 10% of your class or having a ton of other real life achievements, be aware that you are in a competition with everyone else getting the same degree as you. Getting into a highly competitive program is the easy part. Thriving is much more difficult. You are not special in any way until you can prove it.
- The University you go to DOES matter. Fact of the matter is that degrees from prestigious University have more weight on a CV, not just because of their name, but also because very large swaths of management and executives are from prestigious Universities. While we can debate about the fairness of such behaviour all we want, there will be somewhat preferential treatment (can even be subconscious) to graduates of Tier 1 universities. And speaking of alumni...
- Make the right friends. Be aware that many of your fellow classmates will graduate and hold positions of power in big companies. Some of your classmates may also come from wealthy or influential families. It is very hard to be successful alone, you will always need help or connections and the best time to be nurturing a good network is when you are in school. This aspect of attending top tier Universities is often overlooked and is actually a better investment than your grades in the long run.
Is higher education absolutely necessary to be a high earner? No, of course not, but if you know what you are doing, it does come in handy.

High Income Industries
This is definitely not an exhaustive list, but I'll list out a few that comes to mind (someone please add/correct me if I'm wrong):
Software: Yes, if you work for Google/Amazon/Microsoft you can expect very good pay and benefits. However, so very very few people get these jobs (even less if out of school) you shouldn't be counting on it. There seems to be this myth that anybody that can code is worth 100k a year. That simply isn't true, unless you get recruited by a reputable company. Top end developers are paid for their capability to make products, work in a team, optimize performance and be an absolute expert if not genius in the areas they work in. The very large salaries in this industry are also NOT developers, but reserved for team leaders and program managers, which means on top of technical skills, you will need tons of soft skills too. If you take a job at a mid size firm or a bank doing back end server work, you'll be paid pretty well, but you will hit a ceiling sooner or later. Also be aware that every year, thousands of younger, more energetic and more up to date graduates are entering the market, if you don't make yourself stand out, you WILL become obsolete.
Medicine/Dentistry: As a medical professional you will generally make a decent salary (average 340k in Canada). If you specialize in a certain area of medicine, you will make even better money (can reach 7 figures). Private practice can also be lucrative but varies on province/specialty. However, this requires tons of education, time, hard work and cost. (Edited. Thanks ayyyyyyyyyyy2yyylmao)
Finance: First of all, I'm not very familiar with this industry so take what I say here with a grain a salt. The majority of finance jobs aren't exactly paying a lot. The big salaries are generally for senior executive so you will need to tough it out for decades and fight your way to the top (like every other industry). There are exceptions like Investment Management positions (aka buyside). While they aren't as high paying as pre-2008, it's still pretty good. Obviously these aren't easy jobs to get. You need very good grades, degrees from prestigious universities (MBA, specialization in finance, portfolio management, CFA, etc). I think the industry has now moved more towards hiring quants over any joe schmo with a finance degree (so math majors, take note). (Edited. Thanks YummyDevilsAvocado)
Law/Accounting: Lawyers and accountants generally make ok money. If you manage to make it into a big firm (the big 4 or the 7 sisters), expect 6 figures salaries + bonuses. However, also expect insanely long hours, high stress and a possible cocaine addiction (half joking). Also take note that as an associate, your salary/bonus is generally capped at roughly 200-250k. If you do make income partner (7 - 10 years), that gets a bit higher and obviously, if you make equity partner (15-20 years) you can make in the 7 figures. There are however small and medium boutique firms that pay their high earning associates a % of clients they bring in themselves. In those cases, you can potentially make 300-500k/year before you are 30, but have literally no free time. One last note: a good deal of C-Suite positions are often filled with ex-lawyers/accountants. The people you meet and friends you make in this industry can be invaluable to your future so always be open to new opportunities and network whenever you can. This also applies to above finance industry.
Sales: Now this one is an outlier. Literally anybody can be in sales. No need for an education or a pedigree. Any commission based position (with unlimited upside) can make you rich, it all depends on how good you are at it. High end car salesman, real estate agents, repo marshals, etc. all of these can make hundreds of thousands of dollars a year. Just remember that for every successful salesman, there are probably a thousand that can barely make ends meet.

Businesses and Passive Income
This is where it gets complicated to give advice. It's no secret that passive business income is one of the best way to make tons of money. You only have so many hours in a day and even as a highly paid professional there is a limit on how much you can work.
Now you can make money doing literally anything. I've been seeing a lot of "what side gigs makes money" posts and honestly there are both too many answers and no answer to that question.
A few general pointers:
- Identify a need and fill it. It doesn't matter how stupid the need, if someone is willing to pay for it, there is money to be made. Sometimes, stupid/boring businesses are the best because you have very little competition.
- The best business plans are often the simpler ones. If your business plan has 20 moving parts and your success is based on 11 different things all happening at the same time, it's probably a bad business plan. If you can identify clearly each step to take and evaluate the risk at each step, your life will be much easier.
- Choose a business that can scale. Remember, the point is to have passive income. If your profits are proportional to the time you put in, that's not really passive income. Learn to delegate and hire the right people.
- Never be stubborn. Listen to your clients no matter how stupid it may first seem. Reach out for advice and always be open to learning more about your own business.
- Work your ass off. This applies to pretty much anything, but no one is going to care more about your business more than you.
- Be prepared to fail. Honestly, most business fails. I almost went bankrupt 4 years ago.
- Luck does come into play. Nothing you can do about this, but always keep that in mind. This is especially important after your first few successes. Some people get cocky because they got lucky here and there. NEVER assume success is repeatable.

Anybody got comments or things to add, feel free to comment.

submitted by n33bulz to PersonalFinanceCanada [link] [comments]


2017.02.23 18:40 Linkinito AJA que Marine Le Pen va faire une réunion publique dans ma ville demain.

Non, pas Marion, pas Florian Philippot, la Marine, oui, celle qui caracole en tête dans les intentions de vote.
Ce n'est pas un "meeting" à proprement parler, ça reste dans une salle des fêtes, hein. Mais bon ça reste quand même un mini-meeting. J'avoue que je suis très surpris que ça se déroule dans ma ville de Pierrelatte - 13 000 habitants au dernier recensement.
Quelque chose me dit que ça va parler de nucléaire étant donné qu'on est à côté du site du Tricastin, qui pour l'histoire a fabriqué la première bombe nucléaire française.
Souhaitez-vous que j'y aille pour voir un peu ce qu'il s'y passe ?
submitted by Linkinito to france [link] [comments]


2017.02.20 09:02 ninjyte Horizon Zero Dawn - Review Thread

Game Information

Game Title: Horizon Zero Dawn
Platform: PlayStation 4
Media: E3 2015 Trailer E3 2016 Trailer
E3 2016 Gameplay Trailer
E3 2016 'Meet the Watchers' Trailer
PS4 Pro 4k Gameplay
'Evolution of the Machines' 'Creating a New World'
PSX 2016 'The Machines' Trailer
Story Trailer
'Secrets of the Past'
'Explore the Wilds' 'Earth is Ours No More'
'Thrill of the Hunt' 'Overwhelming Odds'
'The Hero: Aloy'
Launch Trailer
Developer: Guerrilla Games Info
Publisher: Sony Interactive Entertainment
Release Date: NA - February 28, 2017
PAL - March 1, 2017
More Info: /Horizon Wikipedia Page
Review Aggregator: OpenCritic - 89 [PS4]
MetaCritic - 89 [PS4]

Reviews

Areajugones - Juan Linares - Spanish - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn was as good as everbody expected. A powerful narrative and a solid gameplay make this Guerrilla game one of the best titles that 2017 has to offer.
Attack of the Fanboy - Dean James - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4/Pro)
Featuring a likeable new protagonist in Aloy alongside a compelling story, deep combat system and stunning visuals -- Guerrilla Games has already raised the bar for exclusives this year with Horizon: Zero Dawn.
CGMagazine - Brendan Quinn - 8.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is the gaming equivalent of realizing that sounding too much like the legends—when done well—is just fine.
COGconnected - Shawn Petraschuk - 100 / 100 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is Guerrilla Games’ crowning achievement in video game development.
Destructoid - Chris Carter - 7.5 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is a fascinating premise wrapped in a tortilla of tropes. It has detective vision, radio towers, skill trees, masked load screens (Tony Hawk's American Wasteland gets no credit for popularizing this in 2005, by the way), and a world map littered with billions of points of interest -- all stuff you've seen before. But after you set up and execute a cunning plan to decimate a pack of giant robot crocodiles and that smile hits your face, it's more excusable.
Digitally Downloaded - Matt Sainsbury - 3.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
Horizon is a remarkably refined and technically brilliant game, but Guerrilla has yet to prove that it can take that next step and produce a genuine classic.
Easy Allies - Brandon Jones - 4 / 5 stars Written (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn feels like a franchise in the making. While not packed with narrative high points, it’s still a compelling introduction to a world in turmoil that answers a lot of questions, but still gestures toward a more climactic future. Its primary element, squaring off against mechanized animals, is such a success, it makes up for the ongoing repetition of the game’s activities. When we look into Horizon’s future, we see a sequel that can take this world and make it into something remarkable.
Eurogamer - Martin Robinson - Unscored (PS4)
Guerrilla Games goes open world in this sumptuous, enjoyable yet overly generic new age sci-fi RPG.
Game Informer - Jeff Marchiafava - 8.8 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon doesn't reinvent open-world gaming, but it delivers consistent fun, challenge, and intrigue from start to finish
Game Revolution - JamalR - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
To simply put it, there is a certain appeal to Horizon: Zero Dawn which I have not found in any other open-world RPG game. Perhaps it is the addition of shiny robots to the mix or the story of Aloy herself. Either way, this game has my full attention and I wouldn't call it anything less than stellar.
Gameplanet - Tim Stanton - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Guerrilla Games' punt on a new IP has paid off handsomely, as despite its silly title, Horizon Zero Dawn is a magnificent open world action-adventure that lives up to its hype.
GamesRadar+ - Zoe Delahunty-Light - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
An open-world that tailors to each and every interest, Horizon: Zero Dawn keeps combat fresh, with an intriguing protagonist to match.
GameZone - Carter Washington - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is a PS4 must-own exclusive. It crafts a wonderful, fully realized and explorable world, and an interesting story that's worth seeing through to the end, if just to find out what Zero Dawn actually means!
GamingTrend - Travis Northup - 85 / 100 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is an excellent open-world experience that puts fighting towering robots at the center of the action. It’s held back somewhat by its weak narrative, and occasional glitches, but that doesn’t stop it from being the most badass game I’ve played this year.
Giant Bomb - Jeff Gerstmann - 5 / 5 stars (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is familiar but also really refreshing. It's not a short game (I spent around 30 hours with it), but the storytelling still feels concise and efficient. The combat has some nice options that make encounters fun, even when you're just stacking up stealth kills from the relative safety of a bush. And the presentation end of the game holds up its end of things with a solid soundtrack, great voice acting, and a cohesive design that makes all its disparate parts fit together. All in all, it's a great game, it's Guerrilla's strongest release to date, and I suspect I'll go back in after the fact to clean up whatever side quests and errands I have remaining, if only to spend a little more time in that world.
Hardcore Gamer - Kevin Dunsmore - 4.5 / 5 (PS4/Pro)
Guerrilla Games took a risk developing a brand new IP that is such a drastic departure from previous titles, and it worked.
IGN - Lucy O'Brien - 9.3 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Across a vast and beautiful open world, Horizon: Zero Dawn juggles many moving parts with polish and finesse. Its main activity - combat - is extremely satisfying thanks to the varied design and behaviors of machine-creatures that roam its lands, each of which needs to be taken down with careful consideration. Though side questing could have been more imaginative, its missions are compelling thanks to a central mystery that led me down a deep rabbit hole to a genuinely surprising - and moving - conclusion.
New Game Network - Alex Varankou - 80 / 100 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn offers an entirely unique world and a thrilling experience as an action game, complete with a great story and likeable characters. It doesn't reach its grand RPG aspirations, but the highs are so memorable and entertaining that it's easy to forgive the shortcomings.
NZGamer - Keith Milburn - 8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Aloy’s quest through the post-post-apocalypse is one of pros and cons. Encounters with robotic wildlife are equal parts tactical and reflexive, but fights against humans are awkward, and the camera is unwieldly. The world is lush and gorgeous, but traversing it can be a chore. Horizon Zero Dawn is a breath of fresh air, and a welcome departure from Guerrilla’s previous offerings – but the journey takes some missteps.
PlayStation LifeStyle - Paulmichael Contreras - 10 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is an early contender for game of the year. Guerrilla Games has outdone themselves, in astounding fashion. This is a glorious game, the result of a team of masterful artisans who not only had a story that they wished to tell, but a world that was living inside of them which they wanted to share with us all. Now, we get to play inside their creation, and it is a breathtaking experience to behold. A massive, open world filled with equally massive, terrifying robots, juxtaposed against the beauty of the Earth, nature fighting back the darkness as it tends to do. Horizon Zero Dawn is the kind of game you play to get lost in, and can be enjoyed by players of all types. This could be the beginning of a stellar franchise, and there is something for everyone here. If you own a PS4, you owe it to yourself to give Horizon Zero Dawn a go.
PlayStation Universe - Kyle Prahl - 9.5 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn reinvigorates open-world RPGs with an excellent story, creative science fiction, and demanding gameplay. Aloy’s debut is one of PS4’s greatest games.
Push Square - Sammy Barker - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Debuts don't get much stronger than Horizon: Zero Dawn. Guerrilla Games' latest borrows liberally from a variety of different sources, and yet it leverages these fundamentals to forge an experience that's daringly unique. The main quest tires a little towards the end, and the writing never hits the same highs as The Witcher 3 – but the tactical action stands leagues ahead of what we've come to expect from the genre, and the presentation is quite simply unmatched.
RPG Site - Natalie Flores - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Through its stunning world, thrilling combat, and heartwarming story, Horizon Zero Dawn is bound to be one of this year's most memorable games.
Telegraph - Kirk McKeand - 5 / 5 stars (PS4)
If you went into Horizon Zero Dawn without knowing a thing about it, you would never guess that this open-world RPG comes from Guerrilla Games - the studio behind weighty first-person-shooter series, Killzone.
The Jimquisition - Jim Fucking Sterling, Son - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is just brilliant. I speak as a critic who has played more "open sandbox" games than any one human should and has grown so very weary of them. I should have gotten sick of this thing in an hour, but I've been glued to it for days and days and I don't want it to end.
TheSixthAxis - Stefan L - 8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is a bit of a slow burn, but there’s more to Guerrilla Games’ latest than just its staggeringly pretty graphics. The story surprises as it takes several twists and turns and explores the past, but the games beating heart is with its excellently tense and engaging robotic monster hunting.
USgamer - Caty McCarthy - 2.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is disappointing. It has a story that I struggled to care about (complete with massive expository dumps—yay), a bland protagonist, and overtly repetitive and constraining missions that worked against its open world sensibilities. When Horizon Zero Dawn hit its rare strides—from its gloomy Cauldrons to traveling across its sprawling vistas—it only made me wish the rest of the game were as worthwhile.
GameSpot - Peter Brown - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is an exciting and breathtaking odyssey.
Metro GameCentral - GameCentral - 8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
State-of-the-art visuals help create one of gaming’s most entertaining open worlds, even if the gameplay doesn’t quite reach the same standards.
Stevivor - Steve Wright - 7 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
For all the hype that's been extended to Horizon: Zero Dawn, it hasn't managed to fully deliver.
Shacknews - Steve Watts - 9 / 10 (PS4)
When I began Horizon: Zero Dawn, I was anxious it wouldn't be able to maintain itself for thirty-plus hours. I'm thrilled that fear was unfounded. The play was constantly rich and rewarding, and the mysteries constantly unfolding. I'm left not just feeling satisfied the entire time, but wanting more. This one is something special.
Polygon - Philip Kollar - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn feels like a storied developer finally finding its voice
AusGamers - Joaby - 9.6 / 10 (PS4)
All my gripes are just areas for a brand new, spectacular franchise to grow from though. It even feels a bit off talking about them, because Horizon came out so big to begin with. It's odd to think that a team could get away with doing less — probably a lot less — and still earn acclaim.
Cheat Code Central - Patrick Tretina - 4.9 / 5 (PS4)
When all is said and done, Horizon Zero Dawn far exceeds my expectations and is on course to be one of the best titles the gaming community has seen in a long time.
IGN Spain - Juan Garcia, David Soriano - Spanish - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
There's so much to love on Horizon: Zero Dawn. You may love its gameplay, its magnificent world, its crisp visuals or the excellent sound design. An experience that's worth it.
XGN - Theo Weber - Dutch - 9.7 / 10 (PS4)
Guerilla Games has set the bar while it ventures into a new genre. The game looks phenomenal, and it offers variety, tens of hours of fun and an accessible system. It challenges you in every fight to play intelligently. This may be the best game of 2017.
Paste Magazine - Reid McCarter - 6 / 10 (PS4)
There is much beauty to see in the game's world—such incredible vision and craft exercised in its conception—but it's subservient to a poor story, lackluster combat and, worst of all, an evident paranoia that players won't appreciate the world Aloy inhabits unless it's put within the context of a laundry list of tasks that have to be completed.
Arcade Sushi - Jason Fanellie - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
With Horizon Zero Dawn, Guerrilla Games crafted a beautiful open world filled with life, both mechanical and human, and crammed full of things to do.
Forbes - Paul Tassi - 9 / 10 (PS4)
I was impressed with Horizon from the outset, my interest lagged a bit in the middle, but by the end I was a convert. This is a very cool universe with a genuinely likable new lead. Gameplay is excellent in most sections, and it avoids some irritating open world tropes like overloading players with substance-free side missions. There are some problems that reflect Guerrilla being new to this genre, but ultimately the good far outweighs the bad.
God is a Geek - Chris White - 9.5 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
It’s been a long time since a game has been put together this well. The combat is awesome, the visuals are stunning, and Aloy is 100% badass. Go and buy this game!
Ars Technica - Sam Machkovech - Recommended (PS4/Pro)
You’ll remember new hero Aloy—and her massive, explosive journey—for a long time.
M3 - Billy Ekblom - Swedish - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn doesn't reinvent the wheel – but delivers an immersive action experience, set in a gorgeous world with lots of mysteries and thrilling encounters.
Twinfinite - Chris Jecks - 5 / 5 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is a treat to every PS4 owner. Its magical world is a wonder to explore, it controls and looks exceptional, and the unique, modular build of its enemies ensures that combat never gets old.
FZ - Fredrik Eriksson - Swedish - 4 / 5 stars (PS4/Pro)
The fighting system is the most unique part but Horizon Zero Dawn isn't that revolutionary. All games doen't need to reinvent the wheel and reach for the stars, to get to the tree tops is more than enough.
Kinda Funny Games - Greg Miller, Colin Moriarty - Recommended (PS4)
Moriarty: This does everything it does extraordinarily well. This is in the pantheon of the greatest open world games I've ever played. This is in the pantheon of some of the great stories I've ever heard in video games. Aloy's an amazing character with a lot of interesting depth. I know people are excited she's a woman and stuff and that's great, but there is more to her than just her gender. There is more to her than just–you just feel sorrow for her–you long for her to find closure in these certain different ways and also find information, and the world building is perfect, the enemies are interesting, the science fiction is fascinating. This game does everything really well like The Last of Us. (24:54)
GamesBeat - Mike Minotti - 87 / 100 (PS4/Pro)
Like with God of War and Uncharted before, Horizon: Zero Dawn should be the start of another PlayStation iconic franchise. It offers a gorgeous and interesting world rich with adventure (including plenty of giant robots to kill). While it borrows heavily from the likes of Far Cry, it’s a more interesting and less repetitive effort than we’ve seen from that series.
The presentation suffers a few hiccups, but it’s mostly a beautiful game. It’s also a long one. Horizon will keep you busy for a good chunk of time with its multitude of side-quests and extra activities.
Game Over Online - Jeremy Peeples - 98% (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is Guerrilla Games’ best effort, one of the PS4’s greatest games, and the best game ever crafted from the ground up for the platform. It combines a gripping narrative with intense action that blends both fast-paced combat with slower-paced, tense stealth sections perfectly. Everything about their vision for this game clicks into place and is accentuated by a stellar presentation. The game features top-shelf graphical work, a unique and enjoyable soundtrack, alongside a fantastic cast to make an unforgettable experience.
Next-Gen Gaming Blog - Ben Ward - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
A magnificent technical achievement, Horizon Zero Dawn mixes up the open world style in all the right ways, with an intriguing premise that kept me entertained, and which dug its hooks into me the deeper I got into it. A stunning game that deserves your attention.
Daily Dot - AJ Moser - 4 / 5 stars (PS4)
Though Horizon doesn't represent a revolution in open-world adventures, it borrows heavily from past success stories and elevates the genre to a beautiful new standard.
GameMAG - xtr - Russian - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is one of the most exciting games of the year. The story is amazing and touches the most delicate strings of the soul. The journey of Aloy absorbed all the best from the industry and with unique design of the robotic animals created something completely new. The developers managed to maintain the magic that makes you come back to this shattered world again and again to explore the beautiful scenery, collect ancient artifacts, or just hunting for the rare creatures.
GamingBolt - Aaron Main - 10 / 10 (PS4)
Guerrilla Games have outdone themselves with Horizon Zero Dawn. A studio that was known for delivering linear first person shooters took a risk with developing an open world game, a genre which is over-saturated at this point. Horizon Zero Dawn is right up there with the best and is easily one of the best games of this generation. Guerrilla Games not only managed to provide a world that is a wonder to explore but they have raised the bar for open world games development.
Guardian - Dan Silver - 4 / 5 stars (PS4)
Its huntegatherer gameplay hasn’t moved on from Far Cry and Tomb Raider, but Zero Dawn sets a new visual benchmark
Worth Playing - Chris "Atom" DeAngelus - 8.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is a perfect example of strong, competent and enjoyable gameplay. It doesn't reinvent the genre, but it's a lot of fun to play. The mecha-dino combat is the highlight and represents some of the most enjoyable open-world combat on the market. Burning through powerful foes and looting their corpses for rare treasures captures an excitement rarely felt in open-world games. The rest of the gameplay is somewhat dulled in comparison. A somewhat weak plot drags down the experience but isn't enough to detract from the enjoyment. All in all, Horizon: Zero Dawn is one of the better exclusives on the PS4 and a great addition to any PS4 owner's lineup.
VideoGamer - Colm Ahern - 8 / 10 (PS4)
Destroying large robot beasts while frantically switching between weapons is intoxicating, but the strength of Horizon Zero Dawn is in Aloy's engaging quest to find out who she really is.
ZTGD - Ken McKown - 8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
I really enjoyed my time in the world of Horizon. From its gorgeous landscapes to its interesting combat, the game feels like a world begging to be explored. However, some of its systems feel half-baked and shoehorned into the mix, creating a lopsided experience at times. Still, like most Sony first-party games, it still feels like a special event, and I would love to see Guerrilla Games get another shot at something outside the Killzone universe, heck I would definitely be in for another game in the Horizon universe. This is a great experience, and one PS4 owners will definitely not want to miss.
TrustedReviews - Brett Phipps - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4/Pro)
I didn’t expect Horizon: Zero Dawn to be this good. I doubt I’ll be the only one saying they were surprised that the Killzone developer has been able to deliver a game with such breadth, depth and consistently rewarding gameplay.
Kotaku - Patricia Hernandez - Unscored (PS4)
Horizon is not what you may have expected from Guerilla Games. For years, the studio has been Sony’s Killzone factory, churning out first-person shooters set in a grim world. With Horizon, the studio is finally let loose to show us how much more they’re capable of, and what they’re capable of is jaw-dropping.
Digital Trends - Will Fulton - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
'Horizon Zero Dawn' nails every aspect of the open-world action RPG, including robot dinosaur hunting.
TechnoBuffalo - Joey Davidson - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
When Horizon Zero Dawn shines, it’s the best game on the PS4. Not one of the best. The best. No question. When tense, terrifying moments turn into loud, deliberate battles and you feel like a genius, it’s perfect. There are moments, though, where it feels like it leans too hard on open world convention set in place by other games. I’m not having fun clearing out bandit camps anymore, devs. That stopped being fun back with Far Cry 4.
This is a good game, though some of that goodness is hidden in the wilderness. Sometimes, that wilderness can be tedious. Other times, it’s something you want to get completely lost in. As you make your 2,000-meter trek to the next objective, you’ll surely get distracted. Those distractions are when this game sings loudest, and I loved it for that.
Atomix - Emilio Reyes - Spanish - 93 / 100 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn offer us a very interesting story with good characters, and a huge beautiful world that invites you to explore with its narrative. With interesting tribes, dialogues, myths, towns and ruins of our civilization, the travel of Aloy in the adventure to know herself is completely enjoyable and the hunting of mechanic beasts is a memorable experience that found its basis to create the new big PlayStation IP.
LevelUp - Rodrigo Villanueva - Spanish - 8.6 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn represents the birth a new and promising IP, thanks to a clever concept, solid combat mechanics and an outstanding presentation. Having said that, it can be repetitive at times and the lack of spontaneity stops Horizon: Zero Dawn from being a true classic.
Digital Chumps - Nathaniel Stevens - 9.8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn proves that a big time developer like Guerrilla Games is more than a one-trick pony and that Sony might want to pick their brains for new and exciting titles in the very near future.
VGS/AM640 - Andy Borkowski - 10 / 10 Written (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is a prodigious evolution in the expression of narrative in video games. Like a technological advancement that propels the medium.
TrueGaming - محمد البسيمي - Arabic - 8.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is an amazing experience by Guerrilla Games. It gives us a glimpse of what great things they can deliver in the future.
Washington Post - Christopher Byrd - Unscored (PS4)
"Horizon Zero Dawn" reminded me very much of a deftly engineered Hollywood movie. I wasn't especially surprised by its plot twists, but that didn't mean I didn't generally enjoy it. Let's see if it develops into a franchise with worthwhile staying power.
Sirus Gaming - Lexuzze Tablante - 10 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is the game that perfected the open-world RPG genre, there are still a lot of secrets that I have yet to uncover in the ruins beyond the land of the tribes. The minor faults didn’t affect my final score for Horizon since the great parts of the game outweighs it. Horizon entices me to come back for more, there was never a time that I got bored with its side-missions which I usually care less in most RPG titles. Horizon: Zero Dawn is by far the best cinematic and most immersive game I’ve played this year.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Max Parker - 8.5 / 10 (PS4)
"Horizon Zero Dawn" hits the mark in almost everything it sets out to do, and it's that much more impressive that it's the team's first attempt at an open world game such as this one. Unfortunately, the character experience gets stale toward the second half. But, story woes don't ruin everything the game has to offer. It's still absolutely gorgeous and the combat is varied enough to be satisfying. There's room for improvement, but that just makes me more excited to see what's possible in the eventual sequel.
Gadgets 360 - Rishi Alwani - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Clocking in at around 30 hours if you were to stick to the main story alone, and much more if you were to experience everything it has to offer, Horizon Zero Dawn is welcome addition to a generation of games that’s seen developers push open-world tropes into many a title, some with barely any reason. The end result is a game that easily surpasses Guerrilla Games’ other works - yes, even Killzone 2. Horizon Zero Dawn is an essential for PS4 owners and role-playing game fans alike.
DualShockers - Giuseppe Nelva - 10 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Guerrilla Games has broken free from the claustrophobic limits of linear shooters and has spread its wings with a gorgeous open world RPG that sets itself as a strong contender for game of the year… and it’s only February.
EGM - Matt Bucholtz - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is a great choice for those craving action and adventure. With a terrific combat system, a strong female protagonist, and a deep pool of side content, it will surely go down as one of PlayStation’s star exclusives.
Saudi Gamer - مشهور الدبيان - Arabic - 4 / 5 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn exceeded my expectations in almost every way. Although it has a number of annoying issues, it's still a must-play game whether you usually enjoy open world games or not, as the game delivers a unique experience through a great world and its own unique gameplay style.
Slant Magazine - Justin Clark - 5 / 5 stars (PS4)
This is the benchmark of the truly great open-world title: creating a world that captivates you just by the very act of having you feel as if you're living within it.
Toronto Sun - Steve Tilley - 5 / 5 stars (PS4)
Amsterdam-based studio Guerilla Games, best known for PlayStation's grim but visually impressive Killzone franchise, spent more than six years on Horizon Zero Dawn, and it shows: in the beauty of the game's visuals, the depth of its backstory and the tightness of its design. Hopefully this isn't the last we'll see of this high-tech savage land. (Horizon Forbidden West, maybe? Please?)
AngryCentaurGaming - Jeremy Penter - Buy (PS4/Pro)
This is definitely a 'Buy'. Is it perfect? No, not even close, and its issues will be noticeable depending on what you yourself care about. But for me, any small inconveniences really paled next to the exploration or just trying to get one more hunting lodge award for excellence with my electro-slingshot. It doesn't matter if it's perfect, it matters if it's good, and this is.
Fortress of Solitude - Deville Louw - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn takes the established open world formula and makes it feel unique and refreshing. It truly deserves its place among the pantheon of great PlayStation games.
SA Gamer - Marko Swanepoel - 9.6 / 10 (PS4)
Guerrilla Games, you nailed it. This game should resonate for a while to come and it’s a strong contender for my GOTY already. Just get it already.
DigitalCentralMedia - Jordan Michael - 88% (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is an outstanding game and the best looking PS4 game to date. Recommended to everyone who has a PS4.
Cerealkillerz - Gabriel Bogdan - German - 9.5 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon: Zero Dawn combines a fresh setting with some of the best parts that were already established by some Open-World Games and on top of that, it looks amazing. Besides a weak enemy AI and some minor animation issues you get one of the best action-rpgs of the last years.
Pennyworth Reviews - Nick de Bruyne - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
Polished, fun and intriguing! Horizon is in many ways like The Witcher 3’s younger, less complicated sibling. Not as deep, but interesting and fun to hang out with.
IBTimes UK - Jake Tucker - 4 / 5 stars (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is a stellar open world game. Guerrilla has crafted a magnificent and utterly gorgeous adventure game with surprising depth that rewards player skill and will more than likely prove to be PS4's next major action franchise. It's just a shame the game's open world is so desperate to validate its own existence that it never lets you truly enjoy the thrill of the hunt.
Critical Hit - Alessandro Barbosa - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is a love letter to the finer details, as they reinvigorate an open-world setting in startling ways. Its tight combat and engrossing world are icing on a package that just shines from all angles, making it an easy recommendation to not only play on PS4, but to buy one in the first place.
GameSkinny - Auverin Morrow - 9 / 10 stars (PS4)
Some people might think it's just a pretty re-skin of every other action RPG out there, but Horizon takes some bold steps in the right direction when it comes to aesthetics and streamlined functionality. In spite of some issues with control mapping, combat flow, and narrative execution, this game is really quite impressive.
GameSpace - William Murphy - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn won’t be remembered for being superbly unique. It’ll be remembered because it’s so well-crafted, lovingly cared for, and downright stupendously executed. It doesn’t chart new territory in gameplay, but it charts plenty of new ground with its world, characters, and more. Guerrilla took a major risk shifting IPs and genres, and with Horizon New Dawn they’ve created a universe I can’t wait to explore again. If you own a PlayStation 4, this is a game for you. And if you don’t? Maybe it’s time you bought one.
Post Arcade (National Post) - Chad Sapieha - 9 / 10 (PS4)
It's so unlike anything Guerrilla Games – a studio better known for macho, gory shooters – has done before, and it's so fully formed right our of the gate for such a vast and ambitious game that it just seems sort of…well, improbable. And yet here it is. A giant open-world action RPG that can stand toe-to-toe with some of the biggest and best in the genre.
PS4Blog.net - Tracey - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is an incredible game. It is so easy to end up immersed in Aloy’s world as time stands still. The game’s story is great and offers several twists and surprises. And even though I mentioned it at the start of my Horizon Zero Dawn review, this is certainly one of the best-looking games on the PS4, no question. I highly recommend this game, and if you have a PS4 Pro, you’ll enjoy even better visuals that will rock your world!
Thanks OpenCritic for the review formatting help!
submitted by ninjyte to Games [link] [comments]


2017.02.20 07:04 2th Review Megathread

Developer: Guerrilla Games
Publisher: Sony Interactive Entertainment
Media: E3 2015 Trailer E3 2016 Trailer
E3 2016 Gameplay Trailer
E3 2016 'Meet the Watchers' Trailer
PS4 Pro 4k Gameplay
'Evolution of the Machines' 'Creating a New World'
PSX 2016 'The Machines' Trailer
Story Trailer
'Secrets of the Past'
'Explore the Wilds' 'Earth is Ours No More'
'Thrill of the Hunt' 'Overwhelming Odds'
'The Hero: Alloy'
Release Date: NA - February 28, 2017
PAL - March 1, 2017
More Info:
Review Aggregator:

Reviews

Reviews

Areajugones - Juan Linares - Spanish - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn was as good as everbody expected. A powerful narrative and a solid gameplay make this Guerrilla game one of the best titles that 2017 has to offer.
Attack of the Fanboy - Dean James - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4/Pro)
Featuring a likeable new protagonist in Aloy alongside a compelling story, deep combat system and stunning visuals -- Guerrilla Games has already raised the bar for exclusives this year with Horizon: Zero Dawn.
CGMagazine - Brendan Quinn - 8.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is the gaming equivalent of realizing that sounding too much like the legends—when done well—is just fine.
COGconnected - Shawn Petraschuk - 100 / 100 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is Guerrilla Games’ crowning achievement in video game development.
Destructoid - Chris Carter - 7.5 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is a fascinating premise wrapped in a tortilla of tropes. It has detective vision, radio towers, skill trees, masked load screens (Tony Hawk's American Wasteland gets no credit for popularizing this in 2005, by the way), and a world map littered with billions of points of interest -- all stuff you've seen before. But after you set up and execute a cunning plan to decimate a pack of giant robot crocodiles and that smile hits your face, it's more excusable.
Digitally Downloaded - Matt Sainsbury - 3.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
Horizon is a remarkably refined and technically brilliant game, but Guerrilla has yet to prove that it can take that next step and produce a genuine classic.
Easy Allies - Brandon Jones - 4 / 5 stars Written (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn feels like a franchise in the making. While not packed with narrative high points, it’s still a compelling introduction to a world in turmoil that answers a lot of questions, but still gestures toward a more climactic future. Its primary element, squaring off against mechanized animals, is such a success, it makes up for the ongoing repetition of the game’s activities. When we look into Horizon’s future, we see a sequel that can take this world and make it into something remarkable.
Eurogamer - Martin Robinson - Unscored (PS4)
Guerrilla Games goes open world in this sumptuous, enjoyable yet overly generic new age sci-fi RPG.
Game Informer - Jeff Marchiafava - 8.8 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon doesn't reinvent open-world gaming, but it delivers consistent fun, challenge, and intrigue from start to finish
Game Revolution - JamalR - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
To simply put it, there is a certain appeal to Horizon: Zero Dawn which I have not found in any other open-world RPG game. Perhaps it is the addition of shiny robots to the mix or the story of Aloy herself. Either way, this game has my full attention and I wouldn't call it anything less than stellar.
Gameplanet - Tim Stanton - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Guerrilla Games' punt on a new IP has paid off handsomely, as despite its silly title, Horizon Zero Dawn is a magnificent open world action-adventure that lives up to its hype.
GamesRadar+ - Zoe Delahunty-Light - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
An open-world that tailors to each and every interest, Horizon: Zero Dawn keeps combat fresh, with an intriguing protagonist to match.
GameZone - Carter Washington - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is a PS4 must-own exclusive. It crafts a wonderful, fully realized and explorable world, and an interesting story that's worth seeing through to the end, if just to find out what Zero Dawn actually means!
GamingTrend - Travis Northup - 85 / 100 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is an excellent open-world experience that puts fighting towering robots at the center of the action. It’s held back somewhat by its weak narrative, and occasional glitches, but that doesn’t stop it from being the most badass game I’ve played this year.
Giant Bomb - Jeff Gerstmann - 5 / 5 stars (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is familiar but also really refreshing. It's not a short game (I spent around 30 hours with it), but the storytelling still feels concise and efficient. The combat has some nice options that make encounters fun, even when you're just stacking up stealth kills from the relative safety of a bush. And the presentation end of the game holds up its end of things with a solid soundtrack, great voice acting, and a cohesive design that makes all its disparate parts fit together. All in all, it's a great game, it's Guerrilla's strongest release to date, and I suspect I'll go back in after the fact to clean up whatever side quests and errands I have remaining, if only to spend a little more time in that world.
Hardcore Gamer - Kevin Dunsmore - 4.5 / 5 (PS4/Pro)
Guerrilla Games took a risk developing a brand new IP that is such a drastic departure from previous titles, and it worked.
IGN - Lucy O'Brien - 9.3 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Across a vast and beautiful open world, Horizon: Zero Dawn juggles many moving parts with polish and finesse. Its main activity - combat - is extremely satisfying thanks to the varied design and behaviors of machine-creatures that roam its lands, each of which needs to be taken down with careful consideration. Though side questing could have been more imaginative, its missions are compelling thanks to a central mystery that led me down a deep rabbit hole to a genuinely surprising - and moving - conclusion.
New Game Network - Alex Varankou - 80 / 100 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn offers an entirely unique world and a thrilling experience as an action game, complete with a great story and likeable characters. It doesn't reach its grand RPG aspirations, but the highs are so memorable and entertaining that it's easy to forgive the shortcomings.
NZGamer - Keith Milburn - 8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Aloy’s quest through the post-post-apocalypse is one of pros and cons. Encounters with robotic wildlife are equal parts tactical and reflexive, but fights against humans are awkward, and the camera is unwieldly. The world is lush and gorgeous, but traversing it can be a chore. Horizon Zero Dawn is a breath of fresh air, and a welcome departure from Guerrilla’s previous offerings – but the journey takes some missteps.
PlayStation LifeStyle - Paulmichael Contreras - 10 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is an early contender for game of the year. Guerrilla Games has outdone themselves, in astounding fashion. This is a glorious game, the result of a team of masterful artisans who not only had a story that they wished to tell, but a world that was living inside of them which they wanted to share with us all. Now, we get to play inside their creation, and it is a breathtaking experience to behold. A massive, open world filled with equally massive, terrifying robots, juxtaposed against the beauty of the Earth, nature fighting back the darkness as it tends to do. Horizon Zero Dawn is the kind of game you play to get lost in, and can be enjoyed by players of all types. This could be the beginning of a stellar franchise, and there is something for everyone here. If you own a PS4, you owe it to yourself to give Horizon Zero Dawn a go.
PlayStation Universe - Kyle Prahl - 9.5 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn reinvigorates open-world RPGs with an excellent story, creative science fiction, and demanding gameplay. Aloy’s debut is one of PS4’s greatest games.
Push Square - Sammy Barker - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Debuts don't get much stronger than Horizon: Zero Dawn. Guerrilla Games' latest borrows liberally from a variety of different sources, and yet it leverages these fundamentals to forge an experience that's daringly unique. The main quest tires a little towards the end, and the writing never hits the same highs as The Witcher 3 – but the tactical action stands leagues ahead of what we've come to expect from the genre, and the presentation is quite simply unmatched.
RPG Site - Natalie Flores - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Through its stunning world, thrilling combat, and heartwarming story, Horizon Zero Dawn is bound to be one of this year's most memorable games.
Telegraph - Kirk McKeand - 5 / 5 stars (PS4)
If you went into Horizon Zero Dawn without knowing a thing about it, you would never guess that this open-world RPG comes from Guerrilla Games - the studio behind weighty first-person-shooter series, Killzone.
The Jimquisition - Jim Fucking Sterling, Son - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is just brilliant. I speak as a critic who has played more "open sandbox" games than any one human should and has grown so very weary of them. I should have gotten sick of this thing in an hour, but I've been glued to it for days and days and I don't want it to end.
TheSixthAxis - Stefan L - 8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is a bit of a slow burn, but there’s more to Guerrilla Games’ latest than just its staggeringly pretty graphics. The story surprises as it takes several twists and turns and explores the past, but the games beating heart is with its excellently tense and engaging robotic monster hunting.
USgamer - Caty McCarthy - 2.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is disappointing. It has a story that I struggled to care about (complete with massive expository dumps—yay), a bland protagonist, and overtly repetitive and constraining missions that worked against its open world sensibilities. When Horizon Zero Dawn hit its rare strides—from its gloomy Cauldrons to traveling across its sprawling vistas—it only made me wish the rest of the game were as worthwhile.
GameSpot - Peter Brown - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is an exciting and breathtaking odyssey.
Metro GameCentral - GameCentral - 8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
State-of-the-art visuals help create one of gaming’s most entertaining open worlds, even if the gameplay doesn’t quite reach the same standards.
Stevivor - Steve Wright - 7 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
For all the hype that's been extended to Horizon: Zero Dawn, it hasn't managed to fully deliver.
Shacknews - Steve Watts - 9 / 10 (PS4)
When I began Horizon: Zero Dawn, I was anxious it wouldn't be able to maintain itself for thirty-plus hours. I'm thrilled that fear was unfounded. The play was constantly rich and rewarding, and the mysteries constantly unfolding. I'm left not just feeling satisfied the entire time, but wanting more. This one is something special.
Polygon - Philip Kollar - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn feels like a storied developer finally finding its voice
AusGamers - Joaby - 9.6 / 10 (PS4)
All my gripes are just areas for a brand new, spectacular franchise to grow from though. It even feels a bit off talking about them, because Horizon came out so big to begin with. It's odd to think that a team could get away with doing less — probably a lot less — and still earn acclaim.
Cheat Code Central - Patrick Tretina - 4.9 / 5 (PS4)
When all is said and done, Horizon Zero Dawn far exceeds my expectations and is on course to be one of the best titles the gaming community has seen in a long time.
IGN Spain - Juan Garcia, David Soriano - Spanish - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
There's so much to love on Horizon: Zero Dawn. You may love its gameplay, its magnificient world, its crips visuals or the excellent sound desing. An experience that's worth it.
XGN - Theo Weber - Dutch - 9.7 / 10 (PS4)
Guerilla Games has set the bar while it ventures into a new genre. The game looks phenomenal, and it offers variety, tens of hours of fun and an accessible system. It challenges you in every fight to play intelligently. This may be the best game of 2017.
Paste Magazine - Reid McCarter - 6 / 10 (PS4)
There is much beauty to see in the game's world—such incredible vision and craft exercised in its conception—but it's subservient to a poor story, lackluster combat and, worst of all, an evident paranoia that players won't appreciate the world Aloy inhabits unless it's put within the context of a laundry list of tasks that have to be completed.
Arcade Sushi - Jason Fanellie - 9.5 / 10 (PS4)
With Horizon Zero Dawn, Guerrilla Games crafted a beautiful open world filled with life, both mechanical and human, and crammed full of things to do.
Forbes - Paul Tassi - 9 / 10 (PS4)
I was impressed with Horizon from the outset, my interest lagged a bit in the middle, but by the end I was a convert. This is a very cool universe with a genuinely likable new lead. Gameplay is excellent in most sections, and it avoids some irritating open world tropes like overloading players with substance-free side missions. There are some problems that reflect Guerrilla being new to this genre, but ultimately the good far outweighs the bad.
God is a Geek - Chris White - 9.5 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
It’s been a long time since a game has been put together this well. The combat is awesome, the visuals are stunning, and Aloy is 100% badass. Go and buy this game!
ArsTechnica - Sam Machkovech - Recommended (PS4/Pro)
You’ll remember new hero Aloy—and her massive, explosive journey—for a long time.
M3 - Billy Ekblom - Swedish - 9 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn doesn't reinvent the wheel – but delivers an immersive action experience, set in a gorgeous world with lots of mysteries and thrilling encounters.
Twinfinite - Chris Jecks - 5 / 5 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is a treat to every PS4 owner. Its magical world is a wonder to explore, it controls and looks exceptional, and the unique, modular build of its enemies ensures that combat never gets old.
FZ - Fredrik Eriksson - Swedish - 4 / 5 stars (PS4/Pro)
The fighting system is the most unique part but Horizon Zero Dawn isn't that revolutionary. All games doen't need to reinvent the wheel and reach for the stars, to get to the tree tops is more than enough.
Kinda Funny Games - Greg Miller, Colin Moriarty - Recommended (PS4)
Moriarty: This does everything it does extraordinarily well. This is in the pantheon of the greatest open world games I've ever played. This is in the pantheon of some of the great stories I've ever heard in video games. Aloy's an amazing character with a lot of interesting depth. I know people are excited she's a woman and stuff and that's great, but there is more to her than just her gender. There is more to her than just–you just feel sorrow for her–you long for her to find closure in these certain different ways and also find information, and the world building is perfect, the enemies are interesting, the science fiction is fascinating. This game does everything really well like The Last of Us. (24:54)
GamesBeat - Mike Minotti - 87 / 100 (PS4/Pro)
Like with God of War and Uncharted before, Horizon: Zero Dawn should be the start of another PlayStation iconic franchise. It offers a gorgeous and interesting world rich with adventure (including plenty of giant robots to kill). While it borrows heavily from the likes of Far Cry, it’s a more interesting and less repetitive effort than we’ve seen from that series.
The presentation suffers a few hiccups, but it’s mostly a beautiful game. It’s also a long one. Horizon will keep you busy for a good chunk of time with its multitude of side-quests and extra activities.
Game Over Online - Jeremy Peeples - 98% (PS4)
Horizon Zero Dawn is Guerrilla Games’ best effort, one of the PS4’s greatest games, and the best game ever crafted from the ground up for the platform. It combines a gripping narrative with intense action that blends both fast-paced combat with slower-paced, tense stealth sections perfectly. Everything about their vision for this game clicks into place and is accentuated by a stellar presentation. The game features top-shelf graphical work, a unique and enjoyable soundtrack, alongside a fantastic cast to make an unforgettable experience.
Next-Gen Gaming Blog - Ben Ward - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
A magnificent technical achievement, Horizon Zero Dawn mixes up the open world style in all the right ways, with an intriguing premise that kept me entertained, and which dug its hooks into me the deeper I got into it. A stunning game that deserves your attention.
Daily Dot - AJ Moser - 4 / 5 stars (PS4)
Though Horizon doesn't represent a revolution in open-world adventures, it borrows heavily from past success stories and elevates the genre to a beautiful new standard.
GameMAG - xtr - Russian - 9 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
Horizon Zero Dawn is one of the most exciting games of the year. The story is amazing and touches the most delicate strings of the soul. The journey of Aloy absorbed all the best from the industry and with unique design of the robotic animals created something completely new. The developers managed to maintain the magic that makes you come back to this shattered world again and again to explore the beautiful scenery, collect ancient artifacts, or just hunting for the rare creatures.
GamingBolt - Aaron Main - 10 / 10 (PS4)
Guerrilla Games have outdone themselves with Horizon Zero Dawn. A studio that was known for delivering linear first person shooters took a risk with developing an open world game, a genre which is over-saturated at this point. Horizon Zero Dawn is right up there with the best and is easily one of the best games of this generation. Guerrilla Games not only managed to provide a world that is a wonder to explore but they have raised the bar for open world games development.
Guardian - Dan Silver - 4 / 5 stars (PS4)
Its huntegatherer gameplay hasn’t moved on from Far Cry and Tomb Raider, but Zero Dawn sets a new visual benchmark
Worth Playing - Chris "Atom" DeAngelus - 8.5 / 10 (PS4)
Horizon: Zero Dawn is a perfect example of strong, competent and enjoyable gameplay. It doesn't reinvent the genre, but it's a lot of fun to play. The mecha-dino combat is the highlight and represents some of the most enjoyable open-world combat on the market. Burning through powerful foes and looting their corpses for rare treasures captures an excitement rarely felt in open-world games. The rest of the gameplay is somewhat dulled in comparison. A somewhat weak plot drags down the experience but isn't enough to detract from the enjoyment. All in all, Horizon: Zero Dawn is one of the better exclusives on the PS4 and a great addition to any PS4 owner's lineup.
VideoGamer - Colm Ahern - 8 / 10 (PS4)
Destroying large robot beasts while frantically switching between weapons is intoxicating, but the strength of Horizon Zero Dawn is in Aloy's engaging quest to find out who she really is.
ZTGD - Ken McKown - 8 / 10 (PS4/Pro)
I really enjoyed my time in the world of Horizon. From its gorgeous landscapes to its interesting combat, the game feels like a world begging to be explored. However, some of its systems feel half-baked and shoehorned into the mix, creating a lopsided experience at times. Still, like most Sony first-party games, it still feels like a special event, and I would love to see Guerrilla Games get another shot at something outside the Killzone universe, heck I would definitely be in for another game in the Horizon universe. This is a great experience, and one PS4 owners will definitely not want to miss.
TrustedReviews - Brett Phipps - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4/Pro)
I didn’t expect Horizon: Zero Dawn to be this good. I doubt I’ll be the only one saying they were surprised that the Killzone developer has been able to deliver a game with such breadth, depth and consistently rewarding gameplay.
Kotaku - Patricia Hernandez - Unscored (PS4)
Horizon is not what you may have expected from Guerilla Games. For years, the studio has been Sony’s Killzone factory, churning out first-person shooters set in a grim world. With Horizon, the studio is finally let loose to show us how much more they’re capable of, and what they’re capable of is jaw-dropping.
Digital Trends - Will Fulton - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
'Horizon Zero Dawn' nails every aspect of the open-world action RPG, including robot dinosaur hunting.
TechnoBuffalo - Joey Davidson - 4.5 / 5 stars (PS4)
When Horizon Zero Dawn shines, it’s the best game on the PS4. Not one of the best. The best. No question. When tense, terrifying moments turn into loud, deliberate battles and you feel like a genius, it’s perfect. There are moments, though, where it feels like it leans too hard on open world convention set in place by other games. I’m not having fun clearing out bandit camps anymore, devs. That stopped being fun back with Far Cry 4.
This is a good game, though some of that goodness is hidden in the wilderness. Sometimes, that wilderness can be tedious. Other times, it’s something you want to get completely lost in. As you make your 2,000-meter trek to the next objective, you’ll surely get distracted. Those distractions are when this game sings loudest, and I loved it for that.
Yes, I am stealing this from /games.
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2016.05.09 16:12 drainX Stellaris Review Thread

Please comment with a link if you find any reviews not listed here so I can add them.
 
Printed Reviews in English:
Destructiod 9/10
A hallmark of excellence. It may have some flaws, but they are negligible to what is otherwise a supreme title.
 
GameWatcher 9.0/10.0
Stellaris is simply wonderful. If you enjoy grand strategy games then you’ll love this. If you don’t then this could be the one to change your mind. If you’ve been too intimidated to try the genre before now, then here’s your ideal starting point.
 
PC Invasion 8/10
All the galactic flavour and themes of a 4X space title, married to the mechanics of Paradox's recent grand strategy offerings. Stellaris has a space opera tale of gene manipulation, Federation politics, or colonial slavery for everyone.
 
Eurogamer Recommended
More approachable than ever, Stellaris is the Paradox grand strategy game you need to play.
 
IGN 6.3/10.0
Stellaris is filled with good ideas, and it’s not difficult to see the outline of a great space strategy game where those ideas could come together. But beyond the early game, it’s only compelling in bits and pieces – it turns into a largely uneventful slog after that. Paradox has developed a reputation of major upgrades to their games for years after launch, and Stellaris is going to need all that love and more to reach its potential.
 
PC Gamer 70/100
None of which is to say Stellaris is a bad game, just an inconsistent one. Given Paradox's history, I hope upcoming patches and expansions can fill in the gaps, and smooth out the omissions and weird quirks of diplomacy. I desperately want the full game to match the promise of its opening. Tweaked in the right way, Stellaris has a chance to become an enduring classic. Right now, it doesn't meet its full potential.
 
PC World 4/5
Stellaris is great. Maybe not Crusader Kings II great yet—give it a few expansions to fill out—but it’s a compelling bit of player-directed science fiction. Freed from the chains of history Paradox has created something creative and bold and inspiring, something that illuminates just how vast and unknowable space is and how tiny our place in it.
Still there’s something reassuring, watching the decades and centuries tick by and the tendrils of civilization creep across the galaxy, thinking “That could be us someday.” Maybe.
 
PC Games N 9/10
Calling Stellaris Europa Universalis in space is probably reductive, but it was the first thing I did in this review not because they are almost exactly alike, but because, when I put away my empires and get on with my day, the stories that have played out in these digital worlds embed themselves in my brain, and I so desperately want to tell people about them. Both games tickle the part of my brain that wants every battle to have some greater context, every move I make to be part of a larger narrative. Stellaris manages to do this without history to lean on, though, and does so with aplomb.
 
RockPaperShotgun No Score
The great experiment of the game was not so much the change of scenery, from history to science fiction, it was the decision to create a Civ-like game of expansion with some complexities and aspects of simulation borrowed from grand strategy. It’s in the simulation of a living galaxy that most of the complexity has been lost, but what has been gained is a precise and finely tuned machine. Less erratic and surprising than its ancestors, but much more elegant in its design.
 
TICGN 10/10
For the price of admission, and the impeccable track record Paradox has with supporting their games with ongoing patches and content, you will have an improving gameplay experience that will get better with time. The game offers a unique look into managing a government, and give you a great escape into a time where you will be zipping across our massive galaxy exploring new and interesting species. Besides the fact that you’ll experience a far flung future where Warp drives exists, you’ll spend hours discussing diplomatic relations with other species with friends who also play the game. Multiplayer gives players an even bigger base to play with, opening your world to play up against real world gamers who might not be so forgiving in their strategy.
 
eXplorminate eXemplary
Stellaris is an absolute masterpiece, combining the Paradox sensibilities of grand strategy and epic international relations with the best that space 4X has to offer. Those looking to experience a huge range of spectacular encounters, in a seemingly endless galaxy, while feeling like true space emperors, are going to be very, very happy. The game isn’t perfect, but knowing that it can and will grow almost makes it more of a pleasure to play. Stellaris is a landmark in the genre and we fully expect it to have a lasting impact on the games we play and love.
 
Vox Ludicus No Score
With a polished user interface, stellar soundtrack and enough artwork pieces depicting planets, creatures and events to open an art gallery, Stellaris strides into the space-strategy scene not as the most complex or deep game, but as a polished, relatively easy to grasp experience with a handful of innovative mechanics that make it unique and give it personality by the ton. I can’t recall a game that’s made exploring space as pretty as Stellaris has, and I’d be lying if I said I’m not eager to see where the game will be taken in the future.
 
Paste Magazine No Score
In the end, The New Space Party were victorious, the game coming to an end a few hours later. When we were told to leave the game, all I wanted to do was steal the computer in front of me and go and start Stellaris all over again. In two days this game managed to transform me from someone who didn’t care about strategy games, to someone who wants to play them all, starting with this one. To some, this might just be another fish in the genre’s ocean, but to me, Stellaris has opened my eyes to a whole new world of videogames. One day I will have a PC that runs it, and when I do, I’ll create the biggest and best empire in the galaxy, no matter how many hours it takes me to do it.
 
Critically Sane 5/5
Stellaris is the most fun, addicting 4X game I’ve played in a long, long time. The other night I set myself an alarm so that I would stop playing and go to bed, and I put the alarm across the room so I’d have to get up to turn it off. Well, my lazy ass got up and reset that alarm three times. On the fourth go around, I just shut it off, went back to my computer, and played for another hour. Stellaris takes me back to being a Civ-addicted teenager again, unable to stop myself from playing a game, and loving every minute of it. The game is complex and deeply detailed, but so easy to pick up and play that I can heartily recommend it to anyone.
 
Gaming on Linux 9/10
There is so much to the game, that trying to condense my feelings about it down into words on the internet is proving difficult. If you’re a strategy fan, or a general sci-fi fan you need to own this. To sound cheesy, this really is the space game I've been looking for. Overall, if you want a score, I will give it 9/10. Loses a single point due to the issues below.
 
GameGrin 8.5/10.0
A blisteringly fun early game can be dampened somewhat by the bloated middle and late stages, but Stellaris is another example of Paradox Interactive showcasing that they are the kings of grand strategy, and is a game that every fan of the genre should have in their collection.
 
Printed Reviews in Other Languages:
IGN Italy 9.3/10.0
IGN Sweden 7.7/10.0
PC Games.de 75/100
Fok.nl No Score
Multiplayer.it 92/100
 
Video Reviews:
Idiotech
Manannan
Marbozir
 
Metacritic
Current Meta Score: 79/100
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2016.05.02 21:32 ShaunaDorothy ONU, troupes françaises hors du Liban ! - Pour une fédération socialiste du Proche-Orient ! (Part 1) (2006)

https://archive.is/WdIzO
Le Bolchévik nº 178 Décembre 2006
ONU, troupes françaises hors du Liban !
Pour une fédération socialiste du Proche-Orient !
Le Liban et la révolution permanente
Défense du peuple palestinien !
Nous reproduisons ci-après la présentation de notre camarade Alexis Henri lors d’un meeting de la Ligue trotskyste à Paris le 26 octobre dernier.
Le Proche-Orient n’en finit pas de saigner en conséquence des machinations impérialistes. L’Irak, victime d’une occupation coloniale sanglante par les impérialistes américains et britanniques, sombre dans la guerre civile. Le journal scientifique médical britannique The Lancet parle de plus de 600 000 victimes de cette occupation coloniale. Le peuple palestinien est soumis à un blocus de famine dans les territoires occupés, et pilonné sans arrêt par l’armée sioniste qui a officiellement tué plusieurs centaines de personnes depuis juillet. Et le Liban a été le théâtre d’une opération militaire de grande envergure de l’armée sioniste en juillet-août. Il y a eu plus de mille morts et des milliers de blessés, les infrastructures du pays ont été dévastées.
Il n’y aura de solution au martyre des peuples de la région qu’avec le renversement par des révolutions ouvrières du système capitaliste dans toute la région, de Tel-Aviv à Beyrouth, Damas et Le Caire, ainsi qu’à Washington, Paris et Berlin pour mettre fin à l’interventionnisme criminel des grandes puissances impérialistes. C’est pour cette perspective que nous luttons, et nous cherchons à construire le parti international de la révolution socialiste qui est indispensable à l’accomplissement de cette perspective. Tous ceux qui vendent à ceux qui désespèrent de la situation des raccourcis, ou des pis-aller en attendant, ne sont que des charlatans ou des agents conscients de leur propre bourgeoisie.
Cela fait maintenant deux mois que l’ONU a envoyé une force de plusieurs milliers d’hommes dans le Sud-Liban. Comme nous l’avons expliqué dans le numéro de septembre de notre journal, il s’agissait pour les impérialistes de tirer leur gendarme régional, l’Etat sioniste d’Israël, d’un mauvais pas. L’impérialisme français a débarqué ses chars lourds de dernière génération. Dès le début de la guerre, nous avons mis en garde contre une telle intervention qui a pour but de neutraliser militairement (à défaut de pouvoir désarmer) le Hezbollah dans le Sud-Liban, et d’empêcher son réapprovisionnement en armes. Nous exigeons le retrait immédiat de toutes les troupes de l’ONU, y compris les mille soldats chinois qui en font partie, et les troupes françaises qui pour le moment commandent la FINUL (la Force d’interposition des Nations Unies au Liban), et qui ont de plus des troupes supplémentaires indépendantes au large des côtes, au total de l’ordre de 3 500 soldats.
A bas l’ONU, caverne des brigands impérialistes et de leurs victimes !
Il y avait moins de manifestants dans les rues de Paris lors de la grande manifestation du 30 septembre que le 12 août, c’est-à-dire le week-end du pont du 15 août qui est le plus creux de l’année. Cette faible mobilisation doit être due aux illusions diffuses dans la force de l’ONU comme force d’interposition, officiellement soutenue par le PCF.
Les décisions du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU expriment les intérêts des puissances impérialistes, c’est-à-dire les principales puissances capitalistes qui sont en concurrence pour la domination du monde. Au premier rang d’entre elles il y a les USA, mais il y a aussi la France. Nous parlons à propos de l’ONU, et c’est une paraphrase de ce que disait Lénine sur la Société des Nations, le prédécesseur de l’ONU, d’une caverne des brigands impérialistes et de leurs victimes.
L’expert international de la LCR pour le Proche-Orient, le prof Gilbert Achcar, lui, au contraire, déclare encore dans le dernier numéro de leur revue Inprecor (septembre-octobre) : « L’Organisation des Nations Unies, sa Charte en particulier, sont un précieux acquis historique – loin d’être parfaits [sic], certes, mais entre le possible et le souhaitable, il faut les préserver tout en cherchant à les améliorer. » On croit entendre Chirac. L’impérialisme français défend aussi l’ONU parce qu’il a un siège au Conseil de sécurité, au même titre que les USA, alors que sa force économique, et surtout sa force militaire, sont infiniment plus faibles que celles des USA.
Je rappelle que Gilbert Achcar écrivait dans Inprecor il y a deux ans (juillet-août 2004) que « les perspectives pour une certaine forme de démocratie en Irak sont réelles, à mon avis, à condition, bien sûr, qu’il soit mis un terme à l’occupation. […] Les Etats-Unis ont, involontairement, créé les conditions de cette possible démocratisation. » Achcar n’est pas seulement un « expert » à la noix, c’est en fait un idéologue social-démocrate au service de l’impérialisme français. Il se passionne pour la démocratisation des pays capitalistes, il se tourne vers l’ONU, il se tourne vers n’importe quelle force capitaliste parce qu’il s’oppose à la perspective marxiste que seule la classe ouvrière peut en finir avec les méfaits du système capitaliste, en renversant une bonne fois pour toutes ce système.
Le rôle de l’ONU, on l’a vu il y a plus de 50 ans où c’était sous couvert de décision de l’ONU que les impérialistes américano-britanniques ont tué trois millions de personnes pour « refouler le communisme » en Corée. Et aujourd’hui ils menacent à nouveau l’Etat ouvrier déformé nord-coréen. La LCR s’est prononcée pour le désarmement de la Corée du Nord, maquillé en désarmement général. Nous avons au contraire publié un tract immédiatement après l’essai nucléaire nord-coréen pour la défense militaire inconditionnelle de la Corée du Nord, en insistant que la Corée du Nord a besoin d’armes nucléaires, et aussi de missiles balistiques, pour pouvoir dissuader les impérialistes. Nous avons dénoncé dans les termes les plus catégoriques le fait que la bureaucratie stalinienne de Pékin ait permis, et même soutenu, les sanctions de l’ONU contre la Corée du Nord qui représentent un acte de guerre. Non seulement c’est criminel vis-à-vis de l’Etat ouvrier déformé nord-coréen, c’est suicidaire car cela ne fait que renforcer les menaces militaires impérialistes qui en dernier ressort visent la Chine, le plus grand Etat ouvrier déformé restant. Et cela souligne la nécessité de lutter pour une révolution politique ouvrière chassant la bureaucratie stalinienne à Pékin, Pyongyang, La Havane et Hanoï.
L’Iran est un pays capitaliste arriéré menacé par l’impérialisme, et contre lequel l’ONU pourrait aussi imposer de lourdes sanctions commerciales ; il a aussi besoin d’armes nucléaires. Nous défendrions l’Iran contre une attaque impérialiste, y compris si c’est les Israéliens qui intervenaient pour le compte des impérialistes. Un soutien militaire ne signifie aucunement accorder un soutien politique au régime, cela signifie par exemple appeler les travailleurs à ne pas empêcher les livraisons d’armes à destination du pays que nous défendons, à organiser l’aide matérielle à ce pays, mais par contre à empêcher les livraisons d’armes à l’autre côté dont on souhaite la défaite. Nous étions en juillet-août pour la défense militaire du Hezbollah contre Israël, sans accorder aucun soutien politique à cette organisation réactionnaire, parce qu’une victoire israélienne aurait accru l’oppression des masses libanaises, renforcé la main des sionistes contre les Palestiniens et favorisé les desseins des impérialistes dans la région.
« Révolution du Cèdre »
Quand Rafik Hariri, qui gouvernait le Liban, s’est fait tuer en février 2005, il y a eu des manifestations monstres à Beyrouth. Hariri, un banquier milliardaire issu de la communauté sunnite, ami personnel de Chirac, avait bâti sa fortune et celle de ses copains sur un boom immobilier à Beyrouth, financé avec des capitaux saoudiens et des prêts du FMI obtenus grâce notamment au soutien français. Donc quand il a été descendu il y a eu la soi-disant révolution du Cèdre. Certains ont plutôt parlé de la révolution Gucci. C’était en effet des manifestations d’un type un peu particulier, un correspondant de la BBC y ayant par exemple vu une femme d’un certain âge manifestant avec son domestique sri-lankais et lui disant comment scander des slogans en arabe. Evidemment cela n’a pas empêché les pablistes de la LCR de s’enthousiasmer pour ce mouvement.
A l’époque, les médias ont présenté un Liban unanime se révoltant contre l’occupation étrangère oppressive syrienne, la Syrie étant accusée d’avoir commandité la liquidation de Hariri. La LCR s’est également extasiée sur ces manifestations massives (voir Rouge, 7 avril 2005), jusqu’à ce qu’un autre « mouvement de masse », des manifestations aussi grosses, mais pro-syriennes, organisées par le Hezbollah, ne lui succèdent. Nul doute que le régime syrien est totalement oppressif, mais il n’est pas étranger au Liban. Le Liban et la Syrie ont une histoire commune depuis des siècles, marquée par le langage, la culture et la composition ethnique. Le Liban n’a aucune base d’existence nationale séparée de la Syrie. Ce n’est pas une nation.
Dans les manifestations de l’été dernier à Paris où beaucoup se promenaient avec de petits drapeaux libanais, on aurait pu croire le contraire. En réalité les dirigeants de pas mal de communautés du Liban n’auraient rien trouvé à redire si Israël avait pu écraser proprement le Hezbollah sans provoquer une marée noire sur ses belles plages et sans remettre en cause, par la destruction massive de quartiers entiers de Beyrouth, l’image de cette ville dans le monde arabe comme un centre financier florissant et sûr pour les investissements. Cette guerre était mauvaise pour les affaires de la bourgeoisie maronite et sunnite.
En réalité ce qu’il y avait derrière les manifestations contre la Syrie, c’était un réalignement de la politique extérieure française, un mariage de raison entre les impérialistes américains et français où les Français cherchent à se réimplanter au Liban et en Syrie, leur protectorat dans l’entre-deux-guerres, et les Américains visaient le Hezbollah et les Syriens, alliés de l’Iran et obstacles aux plans américains de « Grand Moyen-Orient ». Cette « révolution du Cèdre » avait été préparée par la résolution 1559 de l’ONU, parrainée par Bush et Chirac, exigeant le départ des troupes syriennes et le désarmement du Hezbollah. Effectivement les impérialistes, s’appuyant sur cette mobilisation, ont obtenu le départ des troupes syriennes. La prochaine étape était dès ce moment-là inscrite à l’ordre du jour : une attaque israélienne pour écraser le Hezbollah.
L’impérialisme, stade suprême du capitalisme
En fait le Liban comme entité est une création pure et simple de l’impérialisme français. Pour revenir en arrière, le Liban faisait partie de l’empire ottoman qui était en pleine décrépitude déjà au XIXe siècle. C’est l’époque de l’expansion capitaliste et de l’expansion coloniale. Quelques nations, notamment la France et la Grande-Bretagne, jointes par la Russie tsariste, l’Allemagne, le Japon et les Etats-Unis, se ruent pour se partager le monde. L’Afrique est partagée à la fin du XIXe siècle, essentiellement entre la France et l’Angleterre. On arrive à l’âge de l’impérialisme, que Lénine a analysé dans son ouvrage classique l’Impérialisme, stade suprême du capitalisme. Lénine décrivait cinq caractères fondamentaux de l’impérialisme :
« 1) concentration de la production et du capital parvenue à un degré de développement si élevé qu’elle a créé les monopoles, dont le rôle est décisif dans la vie économique ; 2) fusion du capital bancaire et du capital industriel, et création, sur la base de ce “capital financier”, d’une oligarchie financière ; 3) l’exportation des capitaux, à la différence de l’exportation des marchandises, prend une importance toute particulière ; 4) formation d’unions internationales monopolistes de capitalistes se partageant le monde, et 5) fin du partage territorial du globe entre les plus grandes puissances capitalistes. L’impérialisme est le capitalisme arrivé à un stade de développement où s’est affirmée la domination des monopoles et du capital financier, où l’exportation des capitaux a acquis une importance de premier plan, où le partage du monde a commencé entre les trusts internationaux et où s’est achevé le partage de tout le territoire du globe entre les plus grands pays capitalistes. »
Je vous renvoie notamment à l’excellent article du nouveau Spartacist qui démolit les « théories » charlatanesques sur la mondialisation qui prétendent qu’on pourrait réformer, humaniser le capitalisme. L’impérialisme est le stade ultime du capitalisme où les forces productives ne croissent plus, mais au contraire des proportions énormes de l’humanité sont jetées dans la misère, où les Etats impérialistes envoient leurs propres troupes (ou un substitut à leur service sous forme de casques bleus de l’ONU) pour assurer l’encaissement des dividendes de leurs investissements à l’étranger. La lutte de plus en plus exacerbée entre les monopoles, et entre les Etats nationaux où ils sont basés, c’est la raison pour laquelle l’impérialisme est l’ère des guerres et des révolutions.
Aujourd’hui les USA ont une telle puissance militaire qu’aucun de leurs rivaux ne peut envisager sérieusement à court terme de monter une coalition pour la remettre en cause. Et pourtant la question est inévitablement posée pour les Etats impérialistes les plus puissants, le Japon et l’Allemagne, qui aspirent à jouer un rôle mondial dominant. L’impérialisme britannique, complètement décrépit, n’a plus les forces pour avoir une armée indépendante, et du coup il s’est raccroché de façon servile et loyale au militarisme américain.
L’impérialisme français est dans une situation intermédiaire. Décadent lui-même, il est dans l’obligation absolue d’augmenter le taux de profit chez lui pour dégager les ressources militaires et économiques pour résister à ses rivaux. Cela passe par la destruction de l’Etat-providence, un système coûteux d’avantages sociaux, dont la raison d’être était d’amadouer les travailleurs de peur qu’ils luttent pour une révolution ; avec la destruction de l’URSS et la campagne sur la soi-disant « mort du communisme », les ouvriers ont perdu momentanément l’espoir qu’une alternative au capitalisme est possible et réalisable ; les conditions sont réunies pour que la bourgeoisie s’attaque à l’Etat-providence, mais comme on a pu le voir avec le CPE, elle se heurte à une importante résistance ouvrière.
De plus, l’impérialisme français essaie de louvoyer entre d’une part des alliances avec ses rivaux européens, notamment allemands (c’est l’objet de l’Union européenne, du consortium EADS qui produit les Airbus, du bloc franco-germano-russe contre la guerre en Irak, etc.), et d’autre part rentrer dans les bonnes grâces de l’impérialisme américain ultra-dominant. C’est l’objet par exemple de la poignée de main de Sarkozy avec Bush, et de la magouille sanglante franco-américaine au Liban.
Encore qu’au Liban on a pu voir que l’impérialisme français cherche à défendre ses propres intérêts et sa propre influence. Les négociations franco-américaines ont été tortueuses, et à un moment au courant du mois d’août l’état-major français a opposé son veto à ce que négociait la diplomatie française, parce qu’il était hors de question que l’impérialisme français envoie des troupes pour servir de flics aux Américains et aux Israéliens.
La LCR s’est opposée à la résolution franco-américaine de l’ONU, mais sur une base entièrement compatible avec le chauvinisme bourgeois antiaméricain de l’état-major français. Ils ne s’opposent pas par principe à l’envoi de troupes françaises. Nous avons cité dans le Bolchévik le communiqué qu’ils ont publié le 17 août, et qui disait :
« Il n’est pas question que le Liban devienne un nouvel Afghanistan avec l’implantation de contingents militaires issus de l’OTAN, se drapant dans le drapeau de l’ONU pour servir de supplétifs à la guerre menée par les USA. »
Et s’ils ont insisté que la FINUL soit composée de troupes non françaises, c’est parce qu’ils considèrent que l’impérialisme français s’est trop discrédité dans la région en se faisant le petit télégraphiste de Washington.
Le Liban, création de l’impérialisme français
Pour en revenir à ce que je disais plus tôt, l’empire ottoman ne survécut pas à la Première Guerre mondiale. L’une des raisons de cette guerre était justement le partage entre les impérialistes capitalistes de la dépouille de l’empire ottoman. Les Allemands étant éliminés, ce sont les Français et les Britanniques qui, avec le traité Sykes-Picot de 1916, se sont partagé le Proche-Orient. La Grande-Bretagne a mis la main sur l’Irak, la Jordanie et la Palestine, et la France sur ce qui est aujourd’hui le Liban et la Syrie, où ils avaient déjà été présents auparavant avec des missionnaires et des investissements. Dès 1860 Napoléon III avait envoyé un corps expéditionnaire, soi-disant pour protéger les chrétiens maronites après un massacre commis par les Druzes qui sont une secte issue de l’islam chiite.
Le partage franco-britannique représentait une balkanisation de la région. Des populations qui voulaient être unies étaient séparées, et des populations qui voulaient être séparées furent unies par la force, comme en Irak. Il s’agissait de découper la région de façon à y perpétuer les conflits ethniques et religieux.
Le Liban en est un autre exemple frappant. En 1920, cherchant à créer une enclave pro-occidentale au Levant, la France créa une entité qu’elle appela le « Grand Liban », en annexant au Mont Liban des zones musulmanes de Syrie. Dans l’objectif de diviser pour mieux régner, les Français mirent ensemble des musulmans, parmi lesquels le nationalisme arabe était en plein essor, avec la majorité chrétienne. Pour celle-ci les Français alimentèrent le mythe que les chrétiens avaient des origines phéniciennes, et donc un héritage non arabe, et qu’ils devraient donc se tourner vers la France pour leur protection. Ainsi les Français créèrent en connaissance de cause un Etat qui assurerait un tas de conflits intercommunautaires, pour pouvoir justifier leur présence impérialiste « pacificatrice ».
La suite n’est qu’une longue histoire de crimes et de massacres sanglants. On peut citer notamment le bombardement de Damas puis la « pacification » du Djebel druze en 1925, qui firent des milliers de morts. Pendant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale se maintint une armée de plusieurs dizaines de milliers de soldats de l’armée de Vichy. De Gaulle et Pétain partaient tous les deux du principe de l’importance fondamentale du maintien de l’empire sous la botte de la soldatesque coloniale française. Ils avaient simplement des désaccords sur le jeu d’alliances à pratiquer avec les Allemands et avec les Anglo-Américains.
En 1941 les gaullistes ont envoyé 5 000 soldats dans une opération dirigée par les Britanniques qui a chassé le pouvoir vichyste du Liban et de la Syrie. Il y a eu environ 7 000 morts, sans compter les civils, et c’était des troupes coloniales qui se battaient des deux côtés. De Gaulle a fait de vagues promesses pour l’indépendance, afin de neutraliser la population du Liban et de la Syrie ou de la gagner à ses côtés. Mais, une fois Vichy dehors, la première chose que la « France libre » a faite, c’était des scènes d’agression et de pillage à Damas par ses légionnaires.
Les Britanniques ont soutenu en sous-main les nationalistes pour évincer l’impérialisme français de la région, et de Gaulle a failli en découdre avec les Britanniques en 1941 puis en novembre 1943. Le proconsul gaulliste français, le général Catroux, parla en 1943 de Fachoda, une ville du Soudan où en 1898 les colonialistes français et britanniques s’étaient heurtés dans la course pour le partage de l’Afrique. Si de Gaulle n’a pas déclaré la guerre aux Britanniques à propos du Liban, c’est uniquement parce qu’il n’en avait pas les moyens. Fin 1943 les gaullistes ont fait arrêter le gouvernement libanais, mitraillé les manifestations dans toute la Syrie et maté une grève générale. Les gaullistes n’ont malgré tout pas pu empêcher l’indépendance, mais ils ont réussi dans une large mesure à maintenir la Syrie et le Liban dans l’orbite de l’impérialisme français. Tout cela et plus a été rendu possible grâce au soutien que donnait le PCF aux gaullistes.
Cela montre pourquoi, dans la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, nous étions défaitistes de tous les côtés. Le seul pays que les trotskystes défendaient, et avec acharnement, était l’Union soviétique qui restait un Etat ouvrier issu de la Révolution d’octobre 1917, même s’il avait dégénéré sous Staline. Mais entre la France gaulliste, celle de Vichy, l’Allemagne nazie, la Grande-Bretagne, les USA ou le Japon, la Deuxième Guerre mondiale était une boucherie pour le repartage du monde, tout comme la guerre de 1914-1918.
Sûrement un certain nombre d’entre vous ont vu le film Indigènes. Ce film a été financé par la monarchie marocaine, grande amie de Chirac et grande ennemie des travailleurs marocains. Le film cherche superficiellement à émouvoir sur le racisme dans l’armée gaulliste, mais en réalité c’est un tissu de mensonges pour apprendre aux jeunes des banlieues à chanter la Marseillaise et se faire tuer pour la France. Et Jamel Debbouze répète à qui veut l’entendre combien il aime la France. Les troupes coloniales ont été dans l’ensemble recrutées de force. Il est vrai qu’elles ont été aux premiers rangs dans les combats en Italie et en Alsace, mais ce n’est pas elles qui ont vaincu les nazis, c’est l’Armée rouge contre laquelle la Wehrmacht n’a jamais concentré moins de 90 % de ses forces. L’objectif des débarquements alliés en France en 1944 était la course à Berlin pour empêcher l’URSS de soviétiser toute l’Europe.
Et si de Gaulle a mobilisé l’armée la plus forte possible, sur la base des troupes coloniales, c’était pour avoir une armée en cas de révolution ouvrière en France, et pouvoir ensuite prétendre au partage du gâteau, c’est-à-dire récupérer ou maintenir son empire colonial, obtenir un siège au Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU, etc. C’est pour cela que les forces coloniales se sont fait tuer. Aussi, entre cette armée française et la Wehrmacht allemande, nous n’avions aucun côté. Dès 1945-1946 des milliers de soldats de la même armée, notamment marocains, ont été envoyés en Indochine contre les partisans de Ho Chi Minh.
La partition de la Palestine, création de l’impérialisme britannique
Du temps de l’empire ottoman le développement du capitalisme était en général trop faible pour homogénéiser des nations dans les différentes parties constitutives de cet empire. Différentes communautés, parlant différentes langues, pratiquant différentes religions, continuaient de stagner l’une à côté de l’autre, entremêlées. Puis c’est l’intrusion de l’impérialisme, avec ses découpages arbitraires dressant les communautés les unes contre les autres, qui a empêché la consolidation d’Etats-nations dans cette région – à part notamment l’Etat sioniste qui a été constitué artificiellement à partir de différentes populations juives parlant entre autres le yiddish, l’arabe, le russe, venues d’Europe et du monde arabe, créant un peuple de langue hébraïque n’ayant pas d’autre identité nationale.
Suite à la montée du nazisme en Allemagne, puis après l’Holocauste pour les survivants, il y eut une intense immigration juive en Palestine, encouragée par les Britanniques. La bourgeoisie britannique est tout aussi antisémite que la bourgeoisie française, mais elle répondit favorablement aux appels des sionistes à l’établissement d’une « patrie juive » en Palestine, parce qu’elle voyait un moyen de diviser entre Juifs et Arabes pour mieux régner au Proche-Orient. D’où la déclaration Balfour en 1917, où les Britanniques promettaient aux sionistes de leur donner une patrie en Palestine. Les Britanniques et les Français ont été finalement largement chassés du Proche-Orient et remplacés par la domination américaine après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, et le fiasco de l’aventure franco-britannique contre la nationalisation par Nasser du canal de Suez en 1956.
La création de l’Etat d’Israël après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, manigancée par l’ONU, et avec le soutien de Staline, devait suivre la même recette que celle qu’ont appliquée les Français au Liban. L’Etat d’Israël a été créé de façon complètement artificielle, en incluant beaucoup plus de territoires que ceux qui étaient occupés à l’époque par la nation de langue hébraïque, de façon à avoir d’un côté, vers la Jordanie, une partie palestinienne à 100 % arabe, et de l’autre côté l’Etat d’Israël où les Juifs seraient légèrement majoritaires. Mais les sionistes ont alors chassé d’Israël en 1948 les Palestiniens des terres qui leur avaient été allouées, et ils les ont remplacés par des réfugiés venus d’Europe, ou chassés des pays arabes avec la montée du nationalisme arabe et de l’antisémitisme dans ces pays. Et depuis cette date il y a des camps de réfugiés palestiniens au Liban et dans d’autres pays arabes.
La nation de langue hébraïque a été constituée, comme tant d’autres, par le fer et par le sang, par des déplacements massifs de population. Les trotskystes étaient contre le plan de l’ONU de partition de la Palestine en 1948. Aujourd’hui, en ce qui concerne les territoires occupés, la Cisjordanie et Gaza, ce sont des territoires palestiniens qui sont peu à peu saisis par les sionistes. Nous sommes pour le retrait d’Israël et de ses colons des territoires occupés, nous sommes contre le mur et nous défendons le peuple palestinien contre la terreur sioniste.
Il n’empêche qu’il existe aujourd’hui une nation de langue hébraïque en Palestine et que nous défendons donc son droit d’autodétermination. Mais nous soulignons que ce droit entre en conflit sous le capitalisme avec le même droit des Palestiniens. Nous ne sommes pas non plus pour renverser les termes de l’oppression où ce serait les Juifs qui seraient opprimés, voire chassés ou massacrés, par les Palestiniens. Il n’y a pas de solution sous le capitalisme. Seul le renversement révolutionnaire de tous les régimes bourgeois de la région permettra aux multitudes de peuples de la région de coexister ensemble pacifiquement, dans le cadre d’une fédération socialiste.
Une caractéristique du sionisme c’est qu’il a toujours cherché, non pas à exploiter les Palestiniens, mais à les exclure de l’économie. C’était déjà ainsi dans les kibboutz avant la création de l’Etat d’Israël, et cet exclusionisme s’est encore renforcé après les accords d’Oslo de 1993 créant l’Autorité palestinienne. A l’époque nous avons dénoncé ces accords comme une capitulation des nationalistes petits-bourgeois de l’OLP, tout en expliquant que c’était directement un sous-produit de la contre-révolution capitaliste en URSS qui avait ôté toute marge de manœuvre à Arafat. Les Palestiniens des territoires occupés qui avaient un emploi en Israël ont été remplacés par de nouveaux arrivants juifs s’installant en Israël et par des immigrés non juifs venus d’Europe de l’Est et d’ailleurs.
La classe ouvrière en Israël est donc dans son immense majorité composée aujourd’hui de Juifs, d’Arabes israéliens, et d’immigrés non palestiniens. C’est à eux qu’incombe la tâche de détruire l’Etat sioniste dans une révolution prolétarienne. Vu le chauvinisme sioniste intense dans la classe ouvrière de langue hébraïque, il ne sera pas facile de faire rompre ces travailleurs avec le sionisme qui les lie à leur propre bourgeoisie, mais il n’y a pas de raccourci à cela. Pour faire cela il faudra lutter notamment contre le sionisme libéral de groupes comme Maavak Sozialisti, les camarades israéliens de la Gauche révolutionnaire française sur lesquels nous avons justement un article dans le dernier numéro du Bolchévik.
Le Liban : une théocratie plurielle
Revenons-en au Liban et au système de diviser pour mieux régner mis en place par le colonialisme français. Un accord non écrit, octroyant des privilèges aux maronites, a été passé lors de l’indépendance en 1943 par les colonialistes français et les divers chefs de clan chrétiens et musulmans, selon lequel le président doit toujours être un chrétien maronite, le Premier ministre un musulman sunnite, et le président du Parlement un musulman chiite. Le corps des officiers est basé de façon prédominante sur l’élite maronite, et les chrétiens avaient une majorité de six contre cinq au Parlement.
Cela a été ramené à la parité chrétiens-musulmans en 1989 pour le Parlement, mais sinon ce système est toujours en vigueur. Il était basé sur un recensement datant de 1932, le dernier qui ait eu lieu à ce jour, puisque tout nouveau recensement révèlerait que la population musulmane a crû beaucoup plus vite que la population chrétienne. On peut estimer qu’il y a aujourd’hui trois musulmans pour deux chrétiens. La domination chrétienne maronite est en contradiction croissante avec cette évolution démographique.
Le Liban n’a rien d’une démocratie bourgeoise. C’est plutôt une théocratie plurielle dominée par les chrétiens maronites. Pour perpétuer cette domination les maronites refusent la citoyenneté à la plupart des Kurdes musulmans et des réfugiés palestiniens qui vivent au Liban depuis plus de 50 ans. Chacune des 18 communautés religieuses officiellement reconnues peut avoir ses propres partis politiques, ses propres députés, ses propres services sociaux, ses propres écoles avec un système éducatif souvent hostile aux autres communautés, et sa propre législation sur le mariage, l’héritage, et autres questions relatives au statut personnel.
Pour maintenir le caractère clanique des différentes communautés sectaires, le mariage civil est illégal, et les lois relatives au statut personnel des différentes communautés interdisent les mariages interconfessionnels. Les femmes ont obtenu le droit de vote dans les années 1950, mais des pratiques moyenâgeuses comme le mariage arrangé et le mariage forcé ont toujours cours. Les meurtres pour l’honneur sont fréquents, notamment dans les régions rurales du Sud-Liban.
Malheureusement, pour des questions de temps, je ne peux pas ici revenir sur toute l’histoire du Liban, et toutes les tentatives pour remettre en cause cette charte nationale. Je me contenterai de mentionner qu’en 1958 il y eut un soulèvement musulman qui fut réprimé, alors que 15 000 Marines américains débarquaient à Beyrouth pour, si nécessaire, noyer dans le sang une révolution qui couvait en Irak. Nous avons décrit dans un article de Spartacist en 2004 la riche histoire de la lutte de classe dans la région, y compris de luttes révolutionnaires. La révolution irakienne de 1958 fut trahie par Moscou, qui donna l’ordre au Parti communiste irakien de confier le pouvoir à un général bourgeois « progressiste » au lieu de lutter pour renverser le système capitaliste. Le résultat fut non pas le « progrès », mais le massacre des communistes et l’installation de la dictature baasiste, notamment de Saddam Hussein, pendant près de 40 ans. (cont. ) http://www.icl-fi.org/francais/lebol/178/liban.html
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